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Barry MacDonnell's
Toolbox for WordPerfect

Macros, tips, and templates for Corel® WordPerfect® for Windows®
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Page updated Apr 24, 2017

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Footnotes and Endnotes: Setting or changing margins, numbering, font sizes, tabs and other formatting in WordPerfect notes

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Overview (or "Things You Should Know First")

Blue dot Some basic informaton about footnote and endnote appearance, use, and styles

Footnotes and endnotes

Blue dot Changes to the current document (Part 1) to the overall note style, such as the spacing between notes, numbering format, etc.

Blue dot Changes to the current document (Part 2) to the note's internal margins, fonts, justification or other "inside the note" formatting

Blue dot Permanent changes (all future documents)

Blue dot Setting new note numbering mid-way in the document

Blue dot Changing the font of the "CONTINUED" message, and how to remove the message

Blue dot Hiding note numbers

Blue dot Tips for using notes in master- and subdocuments

Footnotes only

Blue dot Using characters/symbols in place of one or more footnote numbers

Blue dot Long footnotes: White space (pagination) problems, and how to divide a footnote over several pages

Blue dot Change the footnote separator line's color

Blue dot Use two different footnote styles in a document (e.g., with different margin settings)

Blue dot How to format footnotes into two columns

Blue dot Indenting all footnote text while leaving note numbers at the margin

Blue dot How to reference the same footnote in a document from multiple body text locations (a/k/a "repeat" a footnote)

Blue dot How to simulate "inline" footnotes 

Endnotes only

Blue dot Endnote tips - How to place endnotes at the end of each chapter, subdocument, or other section (or any place you want them), instead of at the very end of the document. How to combine several files that contain endnotes

Related items

Blue dot NoteTools - a suite of six macros to navigate or convert footnotes and endnotes

Blue dot Styles (footnotes and endnotes are special built-in text styles) - General information about types of text styles - Tips and links to other pages about various styles


Overview (or "Things You Should Know First")

Where your notes appear

By default, all body text -- including footnotes an endnotes, headers and footers, and standard page numbering -- will appear inside the four page margins.

  Page margins are displayed using margin guidelines -- faint dotted lines on your screen which do not print. Guidelines can be made "draggable" and/or toggled on and off from the View, Guidelines menu.

  Footnotes are typically placed at the bottom of all pages (the default) but you can force the last page's footnotes to appear just below the last paragraph of text. See Part 1 below.

  Endnotes are typically placed on a separate page but you can put them on any page (see here).

  If you use footers they will "push" footnotes upward from the page's bottom margin. The distance can be adjusted in the footer's property bar (for more on headers and footers, see here).

You can use both footnotes and endnotes in the same document

Using both types of notes in the same document might come in handy (for example) if you wish to use one for author's notes that are intended to be removed (or copied) later. [Tip: See NoteTools for some macros that can help quickly navigate and/or convert notes.]

Exceptions

Footnotes in parallel columns:

WordPerfect does not support creating footnotes in parallel columns. (See Format, Columns on the main WordPerfect menu.) Footnotes will be converted to endnotes if you try to create footnotes in parallel olumns. However, footnotes can be created in newspaper columns. You can change parallel columns to newspaper columns by double-clicking the [Col Def] code in Reveal Codes.]

Footnotes in tables:

If you try to create a footnote in a header row of a table, you will find that the Footnote/Create option is unavailable. You must use an endnote in that situation. Reason: Since a header row might span several pages, a footnote would not logically work in that situation, so WordPerfect forces you to use an endnote.

However, you can use footnotes in ordinary non-header rows if you disable (un-tick) the option, "Divide row across pages," in Table, Format, Row (tab) for the row (or just right-click in the cell, then choose Format, Row (tab), etc.). If this option is enabled, you will find that the Footnote/Create option is unavailable, and you must use an endnote in that situation -- and for the same reason given above for header rows. [Thanks to Günther Juncker for this tip.]

Inheritance

Generally, when you first create a footnote or endnote the note uses ("picks up" or "inherits") the font, font size, left/right margins, line spacing, etc., from the default (or "initial") document style. The default style, in turn, comes from the template that spawned the document. WordPerfect's formatting acts like a stream of water: Things often "flow downstream" from one item to the next until they are either stopped or replaced with something else.

•  From one format code to another: The font and other formatting codes for the default document style are embedded in the [Open Style: DocumentStyle] code at the top of the main document's text, which can be seen in the Reveal Codes window. This code functions as a sort of "container" with the new document's design elements and formatting codes.

  As mentioned, this initial style code comes from the template that spawned the document (usually, the program's default template). If you want to force all note text to take on the document's font type, font size, etc. -- as you might need to do if you copy a document with notes into your current document and the current document has a different default style -- you can set new format codes for the entire document, including all text in your footnotes and endnotes, with File, Document, Current Document Style (which opens the Styles Editor for the main document; for a brief visual guide to using this feature see here). The notes for that particular document will then inherit the font, font size, etc., of the new document style setting. This is a simple, global adjustment.

  But what if you want to change these things individually? Footnote and/or endnote numbering styles for the note's number in the document's body text area (a/k/a the "calling number"), as well as the text style inside the notes themselves, can be modified so they will be different from the body text area of the main document. Moreover, these two items can be set independently of each other, as explained in the changes to the current document section below and in the permanent changes section.

Styles


The appearance of a footnote or endnote -- its placement, numbering method, default font, etc. -- is controlled by two built-in related styles, one for the note number (Ftn#InDoc or Endn#InDoc) in the body text of your document and the other
(Footnote or Endnote) for the note's text. You'll see them listed under Format, Styles if they exist in the document.

Notes

¤  There are several format codes that relate to footnotes and endnotes, some of which might exist in a particular document depending on how you might have adjusted formatting. These can be seen listed in Edit, Find and Replace, Match, Codes. Not all of them will be in a document or even be visible since some are included inside the note's governing style. Others, such as [Footnote Num Set], will appear at the location where they were implemented.

¤  The main format codes in the body text area of the document that produce the notes are seen in Reveal Codes as [Footnote] and [Endnote]. Removing such a code, either by manually deleting it in Reveal Codes or with Find and Replace, removes the note, too (and renumbers the remaining notes).

As explained below, you can easily edit the existing footnote or endnote style to suit your needs, overriding the document's default settings for notes (see previous "Inheritance" paragraph). Thus, you can have the body text and other structures have one style of text, and the note text can have another style -- such as a smaller font than the body text. You can even have the note's number in the body text area have a different style from the surrounding body text, as in the example in the "Changes to the current document..." section below.

If you want to change a note's style throughout the document there are several questions to ask yourself first. For example:

•  Do you want to apply any changes you make to the current document only, or to all future documents based on the template? If the latter, see the "Permanent changes" section below.

•  Is the text style of the note number (a/k/a the calling number) in the body of the document's text acceptable? For example, do you want the superscripted number enclosed in parentheses, bolded, and/or made relatively larger, etc.? [Note also that you can change the text style of the note's number in the body text area of the document independently of changes to the style of the note's text itself.]

•  What about the text style or format of the note text itself? Do you want to use a smaller font in the note itself, full justification, or insert a space (or tab or indent) between the note's number and the note's text?

More tips

In WordPerfect's Help (F1; Index tab) look up the topic, "Format (in WP8)," or "Formatting" (in WP9 and later versions). Under that Help heading, look for "footnotes (or endnotes)." It contains some useful information.

Read through the remainder of this page. There are some tips that may help you solve a footnote or endnote problem.

[Page top]


Changes to the current document (Part 1) to the overall note style, such as the spacing between notes, numbering format, etc.

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

[Be sure to read the General Tips above.]
Notes
¤  To make changes to the overall footnote or endnote style for just the current document, you might first have to go to the top of the document before all notes if you want all notes affected by your changes. Otherwise, position the cursor just before the note where you want the change to take effect.

¤  To make changes to the footnote's (or endnote's) text area (i.e., "inside the note" formatting) for just the current document, see the "Changes...(Part 2)..." section below.

¤  To make your changes permanent for future documents, see below.
How to do it
In a document that has at least one footnote or endnote in it -

•  click on Insert, Footnote/Endnote; then -

•  click on the type of note (Footnote or Endnote); then -

•  click on Options button, then Advanced. The Advanced Footnote (or Endnote) Options dialog pops up, which allows you to make format changes to the note's overall style, such as the

- numbering method (i.e., Numbers; Lower/Upper case letters or Roman; Characters [see also below]),
- numbering style,
- space between notes,
- position of any footnotes on the last text page,
- endnote placement, etc.

Further:

¤  For changes to the numbering style in the main body text area (also known as the "calling number")
-- such as the relative size of the number -- you can use the In Text button (as in the example below). This is the same as using the program's main menu (Format, Styles) and selecting the Ftn#InDoc or Endn#InDoc style -- but it might be easier to remember to use the Insert...Advanced dialog.

¤  For changes to the note's margins, fonts, justification or other "inside the note" formatting, see the next section below. Or you can use the In Note 
button on the Advanced dialog -- but you might still want to read that section for some tips and examples.

¤  Endnotes normally appear on a separate page, but this can be changed. See "How to place endnotes at the end of each chapter, subdocument, or other section (or any place you want them), instead of at the very end of the document & How to combine several files that contain endnotes" here.
Typical changes

You can change various aspects of footnotes and endnotes with the Advanced settings built into each style.

Click Insert, Footnote (or Endnote), Options, Advanced. This brings up the Advanced Footnote Options dialog (or the Endnote Options dialog).

•  You might want more vertical spacing between notes, so set the "Space between notes" option. Or you might want to set the spacing to zero so that the notes will appear adjacent to one another, vertically.

•  You can edit the number's style as it appears in the body text area (see Example 1) or set a different font in the note itself (see Example 2).

•  You can specify how much of the note's text to keep together on a page.

•  Using the Advanced settings, you can change the Numbering Style in the document itself with the "In Text" button, or change the note's text formatting (margins, fonts, etc.) using the "In Note" option, as explained in the examples below.

Explore these and other options -- some of which are discussed elsewhere on this web page -- with a "test" document that has some notes in it.

Example 1

Using "In Text", for example, you could change the relative font size of the note's number in the body text area of your document:

While in the footnote's Styles Editor that pops up when you click "In Text," select the [Footnote Num Disp] or [Endnote Num Disp] code -- it's easier to do this with <Shift+arrow> -- and make it relatively larger with Format, Font, Relative Size (accessed from the Styles Editor's menu, not WordPerfect's main menu).

For example, if you are modifying the footnote style, the codes should look like this in the Styles Editor:
[Suprscpt][Large][Footnote Num Disp][Large][Suprscpt]
Tips:

☼  If you prefer to have a space before and after the number in body text you can add spaces (not shown here) to each end of the above codes by simply pressing the <Spacebar> key.

☼  You can use the same method to change the font type ("font face") using the Format, Font menu in the Styles Editor.

Important cautions:

Don't simply select the [Footnote Num Disp] code with mouse or keyboard and then set a new absolute font size for the note's number, since footnote/endnote number styles are Open styles (they continue until turned off or replaced by another of the same type) and you cannot apply an absolute size to just the number's selected Display code (without enabling an option in the Styles Editor; see next paragraphs). If you try, you might cause all body text following the first note's number to be set in the new size, too!

[To fix this problem you can simply edit the number style again to remove the absolute font size code. (Just drag it from the Contents pane to remove it.) Or you can set an absolute size using the method discussed in the next paragraphs.]

The reason this happens is that unlike with the document's body text, an absolute font size code is always inserted in the Styles Editor as a single code (i.e., an "On" code only), and not a paired code (i.e., both "On"and "Off" codes) regardless of whether you select the [Footnote Num Disp] code first.

Instead, you could set a relative size as in the above example, which is a paired code whenever it is applied to selected codes (or text). In other words, used this way (with selected material) the code will have an Off component as well as an On component.

That said, note that you can use absolute sizes if you add a second "restorative" font size code following the footnote number code in the Contents pane -- one that is the same as the font size in the body text area at that point. The Contents pane should then look something like this:

 
[Suprscpt][FontSize:14pt][Footnote Num Disp][FontSize:12pt][Suprscpt]

This additional code will act as the font's "Off" code to the previous "On" code, and it should restore the change in font size back to the one used in the body text (here, 12-point).

But it seems much more reliable to use a relative size change as discussed here, since the font size of the note's number will change (relative to the body text) if you change the font size of the body text.

These cautions also apply to changing the font type (Arial, Times, etc.). However, just like the method mentioned in the previous paragraphs concerning font sizes, you could manually insert the same font type at the end of the string of codes in the Contents pane that is used in the document's body text. It would look like this in the Styles Editor, assuming Times New Roman as the body text default and Courier as the desired font for the number:
[Font: Courier][Suprscpt][Footnote Num Disp][Suprscpt][Font: Times New Roman]
Tip: The two new [Font] codes can also be placed inside the superscripted code pair so that the parentheses are not affected by the change.

Example 2

Using "In Note", for example, when the Styles Editor opens to allow editing the note's style you could insert a space after the codes to produce a space between the number and the content of the note itself. This saves having to type in a space when creating each note, if you prefer a space separator.

Use any of the items from the top menu of the Styles Editor to change the note's style.

You can also drag codes out of the dialog window to delete them (or simply backspace over them); however, be sure to retain the [Footnote Num Disp] code, since this is what displays the number.

Notice that when you are in the Styles Editor for the note itself (i.e., "In Note") you will see that the first code inside the Styles Editor's Contents pane is an [Open Style: DocumentStyle] code: This is the formatting code from the template on which the current document is based. Don't delete it or edit it. You can remove or add characters and codes after the Open Style code to achieve a new format.

When you are done, press OK twice, then Close, to return to your document.

Need to make your changes permanent?
 

To make these changes the default for future documents, see the permanent changes section.

[Page top]


Changes to the current Document (Part 2) to the note's internal margins, fonts, justification, or other "inside the note" formatting

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

[Be sure to read the General Tips above.]

Notes

¤  To make changes to the overall note's style, such as the spacing between each note, the numbering style (e.g., font size or spaces before/after the number), how much of the note's text to keep together on a page, etc., see the "Changes...(Part 1)..." section above.

¤  As noted in the "Inheritance" section above, notes get much of their formatting from the default document style. You can, of course, add formatting to any individual note's text the same as you would for text in the body of the document. However (and except where noted), the material below in this section deals with modifying formatting inside the note's text area which then will apply to all notes.

Editing the note's style

Either -

•  Open Reveal Codes and click inside any existing note; then double-click the [Open Style: Footnote] or [Open Style: Endnote] code at the beginning of the note in the Reveal Codes window.
or -

•  While inside the main document area click Insert, Footnote/Endnote. With the radio button enabled for the type of note (footnote or endnote), click the Options button, then Advanced. When the Advanced Footnote (or Endnote) Options dialog appears, click the In Note button. [The In Text button lets you change the format of the superscripted number in the main boidy text area of the document. This button is also available using the method in the section above on formatting the overall style.]

Either method will bring up the Styles Editor for the notes.

Margins in notes

Most often this particular Styles Editor (see previous paragraphs) is useful for changing footnote (or endnote) margins in the text of the note to the same margin settings that exist in the document prior to the footnote (or endnote). [Footnotes and endnotes "inherit" their initial page margin (and some other) settings from the current document style as explained above.]

•  Using the foonote's (or endnote's) Styles Editor's menu (at the top of the Editor's dialog), click Format, Margins.

•  Then set the left and/or right margins (in the fields under "Document margins" in the dialog that pops up) to match the body text area's margins.

This will insert the new new margin format code(s) in the Contents pane of the Styles Editor. [Note that the insertion point (cursor) where changes will be made is displayed as a small red block () in the Contents pane.]

•  Click OK when finished to close the Styles Editor.
Notes
¤  Be especially aware there is an [Open Style: DocumentStyle] code inside the Contents pane of this Styles Editor. Do not delete it or edit it, or you might lose other formatting inherited from the main document's initial style code (which code has the same name).

¤  Also do not delete the [Footnote Num Disp] or [Endnote Num Disp] code, since this is what provides the automatically incrementing number (or letter) in the note itself.

¤  The new margin setting code (e.g., [Lft Mar]) should normally be located just after the [Open Style...] code in the Contents pane, before all other codes.
Tips
☼  Starting with WordPerfect 11, if you first enable a checkbox option in the Insert, Footnote/Endnote dialog ("Align with document margins") WordPerfect will place a [LftMar] code in the footnote's (or endnote's) text. This causes the note's text to align with the current page's left margin; however, the note's number at the bottom of the page will still be at the extreme left (the default location).

Hence, you might prefer setting the left margin for all notes inside the Footnote (or Endnote) style code as explained above in the previous paragraphs in this section. This places the number in alignment with the left page margin.

☼  If you delete the [Hd Left Tab] code in the Styles Editor's Contents pane, the note's number will start at the left margin instead of at the next tab stop.

☼  You can quickly change the left/right margins in an individual note by clicking inside the note and then dragging their page margin guidelines (you can enable them with View, Guidelines on the program's top menu) in the note leftward or rightward. But to change all notes in one operation, use the method above.
Text justification, font size, tabs, line spacing, and other inside-the-notes formatting

Text justification:

You can also click the justification button on the Styles Editor toolbar for fully justified footnote (or endnote) text, etc.

In the Contents pane, be sure to place the new [Just] code before (to the left of) the footnote (or endnote) number display codes, not after them.

Notes

¤  Typically, any justification other than Left that you make in the text area of the footnote (or endnote) in the main document area will cause the note's text to start one line below the note's number. Using the Styles Editor to set justification to Full, etc., is a cure for this odd issue. (But see the next Note for an alternative to this.)

¤  If you want Full justification to be applied to just the current note and not other notes, and also not have the text drop down a line (as noted in the previous paragraph), here's a little trick from Noal Mellot in a WordPerfect Universe post, which applies equally to footnotes and endnotes:

Instead of using the Styles Editor, "... turn on RevealCodes in the footnote editing window [i.e., the note's text area], delete the Footnote style code, set to full justification, then, via the [document's Format,] Styles menu, reapply the Footnote style code after the full justification code."

[This trick also works for some other formatting, such as setting new tabs or line spacing for just that note.]

Font size:

Note that you can set the font size for all footnote or endnote text in the Styles Editor.

You can even set the font size to a
fractional size (e.g., 10.5 points), but it is not obvious how to do it: In the footnote's or endnote's Styles Editor, do not use the font size drop list on the Editor's property bar. Instead, use the Styles Editor's top menu by clicking Format, Font. The Font Properties dialog appears. On the Font tab, type the fractional size (e.g., 10.5) in the Size field, then click OK. This inserts a [Font Size] code in the Editor's Contents pane, at the current cursor location. [Thanks to Billvv on WordPerfect Universe for this tip.]

Tabs:

You can set new tab settings 
for all footnote or endnote text in the Styles Editor.

Line spacing:


Assuming you have already set line spacing inside the initial document style (see "Inheritance" above) to some value other than the one you need to use inside notes, use Format, Line, Spacing in the Styles Editor for the notes.

[Why "other than"? If, for example, the document's default line spacing is set to 1.0, then you won't be able to use this same value in the note's style since the program won't set a code that is redundant. Change the line spacing in the document's default style first, then set the note's line spacing.]

If you have set line spacing in the document's main body text area (say, at the top of the document), then the notes will use whatever is indicated inside the default document style (or the template that spawned it). Hence, setting (e.g.) a line spacing of 2.0 at the top of the document will still produce notes with a line spacing of 1.0 (if that is the default document style -- which it normally is).

Other formatting:

Back up the document and experiment!

Need to make your changes permanent? 

To make these changes the default for future documents, see the permanent changes section.

Examples


Example 1: A typical problem:

There's a different font in the footnotes than the font used in body text.

Q: I would create a footnote in a document that was done in Times New Roman, and the footnote without fail would be created in Courier (the number in the document body was TNR, but at the bottom of the page everything was in Courier). Any ideas on how to fix this?

A: The font of the footnote's text (and endnote text) is controlled by the document's default font, which in your case appears to be Courier. If you go to the top of the document, double-click the [Open Style: Document Style] code in Reveal Codes. You should see the document's default font in the Styles Editor -- probably set to Courier. Also, somewhere at the top of the document itself, you'll probably see a Times font code. The Times font applies to the body text from that point forward, but "substructures" such as footnotes, endnotes, headers, text boxes, comments, etc., will take their font from the default document style.

There are a couple of ways to solve this:

(A) Change WordPerfect's default document style in the Styles Editor to Times New Roman (and if you wish this to be the default for all new documents in the future, check the box "Use as default"). The footnotes (or endnotes) should now appear in TNR.

¤  Note: To set new fonts or font sizes, I suggest you change the default document style either by double-clicking the [Open Style: Document Style] code in Reveal Codes, or with the menu selection, File, Document, Current Document Style (not Default Font, which only works if there are no existing font codes in the Styles Editor).

(B) An alternative is to change only the notes' font for the current document (as described above in this section): With Reveal Codes open, click inside any note. Then double-click the [Open Style: Footnote] or [Open Style: Endnote] code. This will bring up the Styles Editor for the notes in the document. Enter the font you want to use for the document's notes.
Example 2: Setting customized tabs:

Here's an example requiring new tab settings inside the footnote for the second and subsequent paragraphs in a multi-paragraph footnote (see also the example below that indents all the note paragraphs):
In the Corel WP10 newsgroup (April 2004) a user posted the following:

"I want to set a tab within the footnote style that would apply ONLY within footnotes (and that would NOT change the indentation for the footnote's first line), in order to indent a within-footnote paragraph's first line a lesser distance than the footnote's opening line's indentation.

The reason for doing that is to make it obvious to a quick reader that a paragraph within a footnote is not a new footnote with its number missing. Ordinarily, this really isn't necessary, but it helps when a long footnote is split across pages, especially if the continued footnote happens to start with a within-footnote new paragraph."

Wolfgang Deiminger replied with this technique:

"Open the Footnote Style in your document. See if there is any Tabset code there. If so, delete it. Place the cursor at the very beginning of the style codes. Then do Format, Line, Tabset. In the dialogue, first delete all Tabs. Then ckeck Interval, enter .25" in the interval field, click Set, then click Set and Close. ... This takes you back to the footnote style codes. Here you will see a Tab Left or Hard Tab Left code. Add another Tab Left code there by pressing Ctrl+TAB (Pressing TAB alone takes you to the next option in a dialogue). Then OK out.

Now the first line of any footnote will be indented by .5" [or whatever setting is used in the Current Document Style], whereas pressing TAB at the beginning of a new paragraph will indent the first line only by .25" (of course you can use any distance you like). There is no change of Tab settings in your main text."

One small caution:

Unlike WP8/9, inserting a new tab setting in WP10/11/12 and possibly later versions in the Styles Editor with Format, Line, Tab Set also inserts two extra codes mmediately following the newly inserted [Tab Set] code:
[Dot Lead Char][Dec/Align Char]
These codes can be deleted before closing the Styles Editor.

(This happens on my system, US language versions. I don't kinow if it happens with other language versions of WP10+.)

[Page top]

Permanent changes (all future documents)

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

[Be sure to read the General Tips above.]

To make your changes apply to all future documents, you can copy the newly modified note's style to the default template. (For more information about the default template, where it is and how to edit it, see here. You could simply edit the default template and create the new footnote or endnote style there. However, it might be easier and less problematic to copy the style into the default template, as described below.)
Step 1. Make your changes to the appropriate footnote or endnote style as explained in the sections above.

Step 2. Prepare to copy the note's new style to the default template.

•  Click Format, Styles. A Styles dialog opens.

•  Click the Options button and choose Settings (in WordPerfect 9 and later versions) or Setup (in WordPerfect 8 only).

•  WP9 and later versions: In the Style Settings dialog, enable (i.e., tick) both the checkbox "WordPerfect system styles" and the radio button "WordPerfect heading styles and all other system styles"; this option allows displaying all styles in the previous Styles dialog.
[
WP8 only: In the Style Setup dialog, click the "System" box to enable it, then OK.]

A note of caution about the radio button, "Save new styles to ... Default template," and how to use it:
 
If you enable (i.e., tick) the "Save new styles to ... Default template" radio button you won't have to manually copy the new note's style to the default template (see Step 3 below), as long as you save the current document after making your style modifications and after enabling this button. If the document was saved after you made style changes but before enabling this button -- and not saved again during the session -- then the changes will apply to the current document only.

[The button says to "Save new styles..." when it probably should say to "Save future styles..." (meaning "Save any styles created after this radio button is enabled"). The latter label would imply that you should enable the radio button of your choice first, before making any new modifications to the style.]

Reminder: If you enable "Save new styles to ... Default template," it is a good idea to return this setting to "Save new styles to ... Current document" before modifying any other styles and (probably) before working on new documents. This will prevent you from inadvertently saving other new or modified style
s to the default template
(unless, of course, you really want to do that).

At this point you have two choices of action with the "Save new styles to..." buttons:

Choice 1. If "Save new styles to ... Current document" is still enabled (the dialog's default setting and probably the appropriate choice for most users), proceed to Step #3 below.

Choice 2. If you have enabled "Save new styles to ... Default template," future changes made after this button was enabled will be saved to the default template when you save the current document containing any such changes. You can stop here ... but again, unless you want this to be your default choice for all future style changes, remember to return this setting to "Save new styles to ... Current document"; see the previous paragraphs.

Step 3. Copy the note's new style to the default template.

•  Click OK to go back to the Styles dialog (in WP9+) or Style List (in WP8).

•  From the "Available styles" list, select (i.e., highlight) one of the styles you modified:

◦  Endn#inDoc(the Endnote numbers in the body text area of the document)

◦  Endnote (the Endnotes at the end of the document)

◦  Ftn#inDoc (the Footnote numbers in the body text area of the document)

◦  Footnote (the Footnotes at the bottom of various pages)

•  Optional: You can make further changes at this point by clicking Edit, then OK when done to go back to the Style List or Styles window.

•  Click Options, Copy. Click the "Default template" radio button, then OK.

Repeat the select-and-copy operation for any of the other note styles.

•  Click Close to return to your document.
Tip

If you want to restore these modified styles in the default template to their original state, you can either -

(A) follow the above procedure and save a newer version of the style that does not contain the custom modifications, thereby replacing the modified style,

or -

(B) edit the default template and use the Options, Reset button to reset the modified styles to their default state.

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Setting new note numbering mid-way in the document

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

While you type
:  To set new footnote or endnote numbering values at the cursor location while you create new footnotes or endnotes in a normal sequence:

In the Insert, Footnote/Endnote dialog you can use the field's spinner arrows to increment or decrement the number's (or character's) value.

This probably is best done for the first note on a given page, otherwise the other numbering values that are displayed might be confusing.

•  Alternatively (and suggested for long or complex documents): Wait until the final draft and use the "When you edit" tip below. This should help prevent out-of-sequence numbering caused when creating/revising the document. (If such should occur, you can open Reveal Codes and remove the offending [Footnote Num Set] codes responsible.)


When you edit
:  If you want to reset existing numbering
-- i.e., change to a new number/letter/character's value starting on a specific page:

•  Place your cursor anywhere before the point in the document's text where you want the new numbering to take effect.

•  In the Insert, Footnote/Endnote dialog make sure the appropriate radio button (Footnote number or Endnote number) is enabled.

•  Click on the Options button, then choose Set Number.

•  Select a new number (or character) -or- click a radio button to increase or decrease the next note's value by one.

•  Click OK, then Close the box. In Reveal Codes you should see a new [Footnote Num Set] -or- [Footnote Num Inc] -or- [Footnote Num Dec] code at that location.


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Changing the font of the "(continued...)" message, and how to remove the message

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Changing the font of the message
Here's a tip from Charles Rossiter (Corel C_Tech):

"The font for the '(continued ...)' message [which appears whenever footnotes spill over to the next page] is the font active at the very top of the main text. If you have a font set in your current document style, it uses that font. So you could set a font in the current document style [File, Document, Current Document Style], and immediately change the font at the very top of the document."
Removing the message
Go to the top of the footnoted document and click Insert, Footnote/Endnote and make sure the Footnote radio button is selected. Then click Options, Advanced. Then uncheck the "Insert (continued...) message" option. Click OK, then Close.
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Hiding note numbers

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It is possible to have footnotes (or endnotes) without displaying the note's number in the text or in the note (or both).

This might be useful, for example, if you want to keep some explanatory text -- something less formal than a footnote -- at the bottom of a page so that if the related body text is moved, the explanation will move along with it.

Here's how to do it (based on a tip posted by "Re~Silient" on the Corel WP10 newsgroup). Basically, you color all note numbers white so they won't print.

In the text

•  Click Format, Styles, select Ftn#inDoc or Endn#inDoc

Note: If the note style is not shown on the Style List, click on Options, Setup, and check (i.e., enable) the box to display System styles. DO NOT CHOOSE the option in this dialog to save the modified style to the default template unless you really want the changes to apply to all future documents based on the default template.

•  Click Edit.

•  In the Styles Editor's Contents field, place the cursor just in front of the [Footnote Num Disp] or [Endnote Num Disp] code.

•  Click Format, Font, then text color. Select white, and click OK.

•  Place the cursor just after the [Footnote Num Disp] or [Endnote Num Disp] code.

•  Click Format, Font, then text color. Select black, and click OK.

•  Click OK to exit the Styles Editor, then Close. All note numbers in the body text are now colored white, but the codes will still show in Reveal Codes.

In the note itself
(in Reveal Codes)

•  Double-click on the [Open Style] code at the beginning of the note. This will open the Styles Editor for the note's text.

•  In the Styles Editor's Contents field, place the cursor just in front of the [Footnote Num Disp] or [Endnote Num Disp] code.

•  Click Format, Font, then text color. Select white, and click OK.

•  Place the cursor just after the [Footnote Num Disp] or [Endnote Num Disp] code.

•  Click Format, Font, then text color. Select black, and click OK.

•  Click OK to exit the Styles Editor, then Close. All note numbers in the note's text are now colored white, but the codes will still show in Reveal Codes.

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Tips for using notes in master documents and subdocuments

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From Laura Acklen's tutorial Working with Master Documents and Subdocuments:

"Footnotes and Endnotes

•  Don't place footnote or endnote option codes in the subdocuments. Place these codes only in the master document.

•  In most cases, footnotes should be numbered sequentially throughout a document. If you decide to restart the numbering in each subdocument, however, you need to place a footnote numbering code in an open style at the top of each subdocument.

•  You can place all endnotes at the end of the document or at the end of each subdocument. For the former method, insert an endnote placement code at the end of the master document, and choose Insert Endnotes at Insertion Point in the Endnote Placement dialog box. For the latter method, insert an endnote placement code at the end of the subdocument, and choose Insert Endnotes at Insertion Point and Restart Numbering in the Endnote Placement dialog box...."


For more tips on using the master and subdocument feature, see the "Notes and Tips for Master Documents and Subdocuments" feature on the MakeSubs macro download page here.

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Using characters/symbols in place of one or more footnote numbers

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A. Using characters in place of ALL footnote numbers (for SOME numbers see below)
If you want to use the same text character (e.g., an asterisk) or symbol (e.g., inserted with Insert, Symbol) for ALL footnotes instead of using incrementing numbers or letters (the default methods):
1. Click Insert, Footnote, Options (button), Advanced.

2. Set the Numbering Method to "Characters" and enter an asterisk (*) or other text character (or symbol) in the Characters field. Click OK.

3. Click Create to start a new footnote, or click Close to return to the document. [The latter will still insert the code ([Footnote Num Meth], visible in the Reveal Codes window) that is needed to change footnote numbers to your chosen text character or symbol.]

Tips

☼  Each footnote will increment by one character (e.g., *, **, ***, etc.), so this method probably is most useful for documents with just a few footnotes. However: The "numbering" can be reset on any page; see above.
If you have already created footnotes in the current document, simply place your cursor to the left of the footnote code where you want to start using characters (or at the very top of the document), then follow the above steps, choosing Close in Step 3.
Tips
☼  You might want to increase the size of the characters. See the example in the "Changes to the current document..." section above.

☼ 
If you want to replace existing footnote numbers on each page (1,2,3, etc.) with a sequence of different character symbols (asterisk, cross, double cross, etc.), you can do it with a macro written by Roy "lemoto" Lewis. Direct download: http://www.lemoto.myby.co.uk/download/FtNtStar.zip. Open the macro for editing and enter your preferred symbols where indicated.
B. Using characters in place of SOME footnote numbers (for ALL numbers see above)
Suppose you have a dozen footnotes and want footnote #3 and footnote #10 to be preceded by an asterisk character (*) and not a number, but you want all numbered footnotes to retain their standard numerical sequence.

In other words, you want the document's footnote numbering sequence to be changed from this -
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12
to this -
1,2,*,3,4,5,6,7,8,*,9,10
Normally, changing from numbers to characters in footnotes will change all remaining numbers to characters, like this: 1,2,*,**,***, ****, etc.
However, there is a way to do it.
(Recommendations: Use this method after you are finished creating/editing the document. Make a backup of the document before beginning.

After you try the method so you understand what is going on, you can use a macro to perform the steps for you. Download FNN2Char.zip, and be sure to view the information at the top of the macro's code.)

1. In the body text, with the Reveal Codes window open, place your cursor just to the left of the [Footnote] code for footnote #3.

2. Click Insert, Footnote, Options, Advanced.

3. Set the Numbering Method to "Characters" and enter an asterisk (*) in the Characters field. Click OK.

4. Back in the Footnote/Endnote dialog, click Options, Set Number, New number.

5. Change the "number" (it will show as asterisk characters) to a single asterisk by clicking the small down ("spin") arrow to the right of the New number field. (You cannot just delete the characters and add a single asterisk; you must use the small down arrow button.) Click OK, then Close (not Create).

6. Back in the body text, place your cursor to the left of the next footnote (what was previously footnote #4, but which now has two asterisks as the "number").
[Actually, you can place the cursor immediately after (i.e., to the right of) the footnote code you just changed to an asterisk character. This is what the above downloadable macro does. The idea is to reset footnote numbering back to a standard "Numbers" format from the new "Character" footnote forward.]
7. Click Insert, Footnote, Options, Advanced.

8. Set the Numbering Method to "Numbers." Click OK.

9 Back in the Footnote/Endnote dialog, click Options, Set Number, New number, and change the number to "3" (you will want the numbering to start with the next number in the sequence: 1,2,*,3 ...).

10. Repeat Steps 1-9 for the next footnote number to change, which at this point will have been renumbered from #10 to #9 in the body text because you "removed" a number (#3) from the sequence when you changed it to a character.

Tip:
You can use another macro, Jump2Txt, that moves the cursor from inside a footnote (or an endnote) to the note number's location in the body text area of the document, and vice versa. This might make editing and changing footnote formats a little easier.

Tip:
You might want to increase the size of the characters. See the example in the "Changes to the current document..." section above.

[Page top]

Long footnotes: white space (pagination) problems, and how to divide a long footnote over several pages

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

Do you have one or more long footnotes that seem to want to stay together on the same page and cause large, empty areas on a page (or even blank pages) due to WordPerfect's forcing its own pagination scheme?

This can happen even when you have set the amount of footnotes to keep together on one page to a large amount with Insert, Footnote/Endnote, Options, Advanced.

Here's a tip from Charles Rossiter (Corel C_Tech) that might explain why this happens and what to do about it:
"The final pagination in relation to footnotes is dependent not just the current footnote, but also on its neighbours.

For example, a long footnote anchored to text in middle of page 5 (for example) could be expected to flow as a continued footnote at the end of page 5, flowing to page 6. But suppose the next footnote is anchored to text two lines further down on page 5. What will happen?

WP will create the first footnote on page 5, flowing over to page 6. But WP will also try to place the second footnote on page 5 -- but it cannot. So WP is forced to paginate so that the second footnote number is on page 6, where there is space available. Result: a forced page break just before the second footnote number.

The resolution of this problem is a matter of your creativity. Shorten footnote 1; re-format text to separate the 2 footnotes; create a dummy footnote number in the text, with a real, but hidden, footnote number on the next page -- and so on."
To these tips, "J.A.G." at WordPerfect Universe added:
- Use endnotes.  [Tips: See the Corel shipping macro, Footend.wcm, which can convert all your footnotes to endnotes. To convert single footnotes to endnotes, and vice versa, see SwapNote.wcm here.]

- Make appendixes of your too long notes, and refer to them in the footnotes ("See Appendix I, II, ...").  [Tip: You can also use Tools, Reference, Cross Reference to automatically cross-reference from a footnote reference to a specific Target page in the Appendix. See also Note2Txt.wcm here, which can convert existing footnotes or endnotes to ordinary text -- including placing the text in a separate document which can then be the Appendix.]
Dividing footnotes
Think of a footnote as somewhat like a separate document. If you need to break up a footnote across several pages, place your cursor at the desired locations and press <Ctrl+Enter> to insert a hard page break.

[Page top]

Change the footnote separator line's color

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Assume you want a gray (grey) separator line between body text and footnote. You can, of course, use any color.

Here's a tip based on a newsgroup post by Charles Rossiter:
[At this point you might want to locate your cursor at the top of the document so that all footnote separator styles change from that point forward. Otherwise, WordPerfect will put a [Delay] code at the top of the document and delay the onset of the new line style until it reaches the location where the cursor is currently located.]

First, create a gray line style that the footnote (and other features) can use:

•  Click Format, Graphics styles;

•  click the "Line" radio button.

•  click on "Single"; Options; Copy; and name the copy to be "Single Gray,"

• 
then click OK.

Next:

•  Click on Single Gray; Edit; and click the Color button to change the color to gray as required.

•  Click OK, then Close.

Finally:

•  Click on Insert; Footnote/Endnote; (be sure the Footnote radio button is selected); Options; Separator; Line Style. This gives a graphic display of line styles, and a drop-down list of graphics styles. In the drop-down list, select the last entry "Single Grey".

• 
Click OK, then Close.
Note: This procedure puts a [Footnote Sep Ln] code in the document (or inside a [Delay] code if you do not start on page 1). If you double-click on this code in Reveal Codes, you have a quick method of changing the line's spacing, format, and style.

[Page top]

Use two different footnote styles in the same document

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Assume you have a document where page 1 has a large left margin, and page 2 and following pages have a normal margin or one that differs from page 1 (resetting page margins on page 2 is best done with a delay code; see here).

In overview, you need to create two new footnote styles and a small macro to employ them when needed in the document.

Create the two styles. For this example let's call them FootnotePg1 and FootnotePg2.
First, create a typical document that you plan to use these new footnotes in, and be sure it contains at least one footnote so that the Footnote style appears in Format, Styles. Be sure your cursor is NOT inside the footnote.

For "FootnotePg1":

Step 1.

•  Click on Footnote in the styles list to choose it;
click Options, Copy, Current document.

(If your style comes out OK, you can repeat the process later and use "Default template" so it can be used in all new, blank documents. Or see here for methods of saving custom styles to templates.)

•  Give the style a name (e.g., FootnotePg1) in the Styles Duplicate dialog that pops up.

•  Click OK. You should see the new style listed in the Available styles list.

Step 2.

•  Click on the new style's name in the list, then click Edit.

•  Use the Styles Editor's Format menu to set a new left margin, and then delete the tab code (optional). Be sure to leave the three codes that superscript the footnote number. Remove (drag out) any stray [Paper Sz] code that might have been inserted.

• 
Click OK.

For "FootnotePg2":

Repeat Step 1, using the different name. If you want to use non-default margins for page 2+, repeat step 2.

Click Close to exit the Styles dialog.
Now, create this macro in your default macros folder:
FootnoteCreate
DeleteCharPrevious
If(?Page=1)
StyleOn("FootnotePg1")
Else
StyleOn("FootnotePg2")
Endif
Return
The macro inserts a footnote on the current page. If it is page 1, it will create the footnote using the FootnotePg1 style. If it is any other page, it will create the footnote using the FootnotePg2 style. Note that these styles must already exist in the document (or the template on which the document is based).

Once created on your system, the macro can be accessed from a menu, toolbar button, and/or shortcut key: See here.

[Page top]

How to format footnotes into two columns


[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

To prevent misunderstanding, let me explain further:

The topic here is not about using footnotes in body text that has been formatted into one or more columns of text with Format, Columns. Rather, this topic describes a method of producing footnotes where each footnote is split into two columns inside the footnote itself. The body text on these pages might be formatted as a single column (or no column formatting at all) or it might be formatted in multiple newspaper columns.
[N.B.: WordPerfect does not support creating footnotes in parallel columns. Footnotes will be converted to endnotes if you try to create footnotes in parallel olumns. However, footnotes can be created in newspaper columns. You can change parallel columns to newspaper columns by double-clicking the [Col Def] code in Reveal Codes.]
The following is based on the author's reply to a post on WordPerfect Universe. It is a bit time consuming since it is not an automatic method, but it gets the job done.

Method

•  First, make a copy of your document, then convert all footnotes in it to "plain text" endnotes in a separate document with my Note2Txt macro.
[In the first menu dialog that appears when you play the Note2Txt macro, choose "Footnotes" and "Separate document." In the second menu dialog, format the notes to your preferences (perhaps use just superscripted numbers without a "terminator" but with a space after the number). In the third dialog that appears (after you click Convert Notes), choose the second option -- "Number notes where they were in the original document."]
You should now have two documents: the original with note numbers in plain text in the body text area instead of [Footnote] codes, and a separate "notes" document containing all notes in plain text.

•  Go to the first page that has note numbers on it, and take note of which notes should appear at the bottom of the page. Then go to the separate "notes" document and select the notes that should be on that first page in the main document. While text is selected, click Insert, Text box to insert the selected notes into a text box. (You can remove the border later.)

•  Select the note material inside the text box and set any desired font, font size, etc.

•  Change the notes to two columns: Place the cursor at the top of the note material inside the box, before the first note's number, and click Insert, Columns to change the material to two-column format; choose "Balanced newspaper" columns if desired. (The box size might change; you can resize the box later.)

•  Click outside this box to get out of the box's edit mode, then right-click on the box and choose "Select box" from the context menu that appears. Press <Ctrl+C> to copy the box to the Windows clipboard.

•  Go to the first page with the notes, and paste (<Ctrl+V> ) the text box anywhere on the page. Right-click on it and select Position, Attach box to: Page, and set a Vertical Box Position of "0" inches from Bottom Margin. Enable the checkbox, "Box stays on page." (The Horizontal Position should probably be Center of Margins.) Click OK.

•  To remove the border from the text box, right-click the text box and choose Border/Fill, choose the "empty" icon to set the border style to "no line" style, then click OK.

•  To resize the box, right-click the text box and choose Size, then set the Width to Full.

•  Go to the next page with note numbers on it and repeat the text box creation procedure for those specific notes, copy the box, paste it, etc.

Note

Since you have converted footnotes to endnotes, then inserted a text box on the previous page, you probably will need to be careful when examining the document to ensure that the new "boxed" notes end up on their proper pages.

Tip

You can add hard returns prior to the [Col Def] codes in the footnotes to add spacing between the footnotes and the body text.

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Indenting all footnote text while leaving note numbers at the margin

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

Here's a tip based on a post on WordPerfect Universe (here) that puts the footnote numbers flush against the left margin and automatically indents all subsequent footnote text paragraphs one tab stop inward from the margin. (See the Method section below.)

The effect is made more apparent with multiple paragraphs in a footnote: They all will line up under the first paragraph, not at the left margin, like this:
Note

You can apply this formatting to just the current document, or you can save it as a default footnote style (see above).

Method


Assuming your document page's left margin is set to 1.0" and your first tab stop is set at 1.25" --

Step 1.
Click inside an existing footnote to place the cursor in the footnote's text area. In Reveal Codes, double-click on the [Open Style: Footnote] code; this opens the Styles Editor dialog.

Note that the very first code inside the Styles Editor's Contents pane is another [Open Style] code: This is the formatting code from the template on which the current document is based; its purpose is to allow the footnote to inherit general formatting from that template. In the next steps you will remove or add codes after this [Open Style] code to achieve the new format.

Step 2.
With the cursor just to the right of the [Open Style] code in the Contents pane (if it is not in that position, click there with your mouse), remove any [Hd Left Tab] code with the <Delete> key. This code is typically inserted to cause the footnote text to start one tab stop after the note's number. This same effect will be accomplished below.

Step 3.
Go to the menu at the top of the Styles Editor dialog and click Format, Margins. In the new dialog that appears, increase the left page margin to 1.25" (and the right page margin if necessary to match the main document's right page margin). This setting makes footnote text start at the same tab stop that you use in the main document (in this example, at 1.25").

Step 4.
Exit from the footnote and open a new, blank document. Click on Format, Line, Tab Set from the main WordPerfect menu and manually set the "Tab position" to -0.25" (i.e., minus 0.25 inch) from the left margin, and set it to Repeat every 0.25". Click Set, then Close to return to the (otherwise blank) document. [Tip: You can also set tabs every 0.25" with the TabSet25 macro in the Library.]

At this point you can test the effect achieved by the new tab setting by immediately entering a hard back tab with <Shift+Tab>. The cursor should move outside the left margin by 0.25". Note that the [Tab Set] code will not show this new setting in Reveal Codes, but it is there nonetheless.

Step 5.
In Reveal Codes, carefully select just the resulting [Tab Set] code, copy it (<Ctrl+C>), and paste it (<Ctrl+V>) into the footnote's Styles Editor in the document that contains your footnotes by editing the footnote as described above in Step 1. The new code should be pasted immediately after the [Lft Mar: 1.25"] code. (See the code sequence at the end of these instructions, below.)

Step 6.
Click on Format, Paragraph, Back Tab on the Styles Editor menu. This will insert a [Hd BackTab] code in the Contents pane, just to the right of the [Lft Mar: 1.25"] and [Tab Set] codes. This back tab setting moves the footnote number back to the left margin.

Step 7.
Move the cursor past the [Footnote Num Disp] code and past any formatting codes surrounding it (the default is a pair of [Suprscpt] codes). Click on Format, Paragraph, Indent. This will insert a [Hd Lft Indent] code. This setting ensures all footnote paragraphs will be indented one tab stop (here, 0.25") from the left margin.

The resulting codes should look something like this in the Contents pane (and they should be in this order but without space characters between the [codes]):

[Open Style: DocumentStyle] [Left Mar: 1.25"] [Tab Set: (Rel)...] [Hd Back Tab] [SuprScpt] [Footnote Num Disp] [SuprScpt] [Hd Left Ind]

Step 8.
Click OK to return to the document.

All footnotes should now have numbers flush with the main document's left margin (due to the new tab setting and the new back tab code), and all footnote text -- particularly multiple paragraphs in any footnote -- will be indented one tab stop (due to the new left margin and hard left indent codes).

[Page top]


How to reference the same footnote in a document from multiple body text locations (a.k.a. "repeat" a footnote)

[Scroll up for more tips or go to top]

A WordPerfect footnote is made up of two parts:
(1) the footnote number in the body text area of the document -- also called the footnote reference -- and

(2) the footnote itself, at the bottom of the text on that page.
Repeating a footnote number elsewhere in the text so that you have more than one "pointer" to a given footnote is often requested by users.

Unfortunately, using WordPerfect's automatic footnote feature you can't have two identical footnote references (i.e., duplicate [Footnote] number codes) in the body text of the same document ... but you can cross-reference an existing footnote more than once, either from one or more locations in the body text area (thereby simulating a duplicate note number with a cross reference number), or from inside other footnote text (i.e., use a normal footnote but one whose text at the bottom of the page contains a cross reference to another footnote).
 
With a little fiddling you can even make the numbers appear much like a normal superscripted footnote number, as described in the Tips section below.

Here's how to do it. [Note that menu choices below refer to the <WordPerfect> menu, not the <Microsoft Word> menu. Right-click on the top menu bar to see what menu is active.]

Step 1 - Mark the "target" footnote.

•  Go to the existing footnote you wish to reference
(i.e., click inside the footnote itself, usually at the beginning of the note's text).

•  Then click on Tools, Reference, Cross Reference
to open the Reference Tools dialog (Cross Reference tab). See Fig. 1.

The above dialog can be dragged aside using its title bar as the "grab" point.

(a) Make sure the Reference Type field is set to "Footnote" so that the reference will use the footnote's actual number.

(b) Enter a unique target name (e.g. "footnote2" or "crossref_b" or whatever you fancy), in the Select Target field.

(c) Click the [Mark Target] button to insert the new [Target] code, which will now be visible in Reveal Codes, as shown in Fig. 1a.

Step 2. Add a reference.

•  Go to (click in) the document location(s) where you want to add the reference to the same footnote -- it can even be inside another footnote -- and add some reference text such as "see footnote " as shown in the Fig. 2 example below.

This step is not mandatory. You could add just the reference number in the document -- Step 3 does this -- if you don't need any reference text to help point to the footnote. But most likely you will want to offer a brief guide to the reader that points to the same footnote they might have already read, rather than simply add a duplicate (and solitary) footnote number.

The number that will follow this reference text (see next Step) is the "source," or pointer, to the footnote itself, which is called the "target" below. When you are done with the steps below it will perform the same duty as a footnote number in the body text. It will display something like "see footnote 2" or, if you don't use any reference text in the body text area, it will just display the footnote number.

The number will, like all default cross references, show up in blue underline because it is now a hyperlink; see the Tips section below for how to change this.

Step 3. Mark the reference.

•  Open the Reference Tools dialog if it is not already open (it can be dragged aside using its title bar as the "grab" point) and go to the reference in the body text area.

•  Click in the document to place your cursor
after the word "footnote" (or whatever word or phrase you used as a text pointer in Step 2, if indeed you used one).

In the Reference Tools dialog make sure the Reference Type and Selected Target fields still display the items you want to reference, then click the [Mark] button (not the [Mark Target] button) to insert the cross reference mark. See Fig. 3.

A "?" will appear next to the reference text: "see footnote ?" See Fig. 3a.

Step 4. Connect the reference to the footnote.

•  Generate the document to establish the connection. See Fig. 4.

Notice that a [Ref Footnote] code will be seen in Reveal Codes. See Fig. 4a.

In the document, the "?" will change to the footnote number. The reference will now appear as "see footnote 2" in our example. See Fig. 4b.

Notes

¤  This Generate-the-document step can be done anytime to refresh all reference links, including Lists, Indexes, Tables of Contents, etc.

¤  When you click the Generate button a small dialog will pop up asking whether to save subdocuments and/or build hyperlinks. Those who are using subdocuments might wish to either save them or not save them, depending on their needs. The second option on that dislaog ("Build hyperlinks") is should be enabled if you have (or want to have) hypertext links in the document.

¤  Note that the Auto generate option at the bottom of the Reference Tools dialog is not enabled in the example above. Some users have found that if it is left enabled one or more irritations or problems can occur, such as: (1) a reminder message will pop up each time the document is saved or printed and has not been re-generated; and/or (2) the cursor can unexpectantly move to the bottom of the screen; and/or (3) selected text might not be printed; and/or (4) printing can sometimes be slowed
•  Click Close on the Reference Tools dialog to return to the document.

Tips

☼  Notice that a cross reference is hyperlinked
and is set in the same font type and size as the text at that location. This is the way cross references work. Hence, it will not look like a normal superscripted footnote number in your text.

However, it can be selected and superscripted (with Format, Font, Position), but the hyperlink (with underline) will remain since this (Hypertext) is a standard WordPerfect style.

You can remove the blue color and underline from hyperlinks by editing the Hypertext style in Format, Styles and removing the [color] and [Und] codes from the style. (You will only see this style in that Available Styles list if one or more hyperlinks already exists in the document.)

But be aware that this will remove the color and underlining for all cross references in the current document, including those used for page numbers in any Table of Contents and/or Index in that document. Other documents will not be affected unless you deliberately save the edited style to a template or other document.

Therefore, always work on a backup document when making such edits, since the edited style will persist with that document. (You could, of course, add the codes back into the style for that document, but this is a small pain to do.)

☼  You can add hyperlinks to standard footnote numbers, too.
This might be useful when publishing the document as a PDF document. See the LinkNotes macro.

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How to simulate "inline" footnotes

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Footnotes are "substructures" -- think of them as small containers -- and as such they are controlled by their own internal format. On the page, this produces one footnote below the next one, like stacking containers vertically.

Some publications require "inline" (or "same line") footnotes that would appear like the image below, at the bottom of the page. (Note numbers are in red to make them easier to see in this example.)

It is important to note that this is not the same as citing several different sources (divided by semicolons) in a given footnote -- that can be done in any footnote (or endnote).

Here, we wish to create several different (numbered) footnotes one after the other.

However: You cannot "glue" normal WordPerfect footnotes together on the same line, like the example above. WordPerfect's built-in footnote feature won't allow it ... but you can simulate such inline notes with text inside a borderless text box, as was done in the example above.

Although this is only a semi-automatic method (probably desirable so that you can oversee the process at each step and make any needed edits) which requires a little bit of time and attention, it works well.

In general terms:

•  First you will need to enter each of the superscripted footnote reference numbers as a plain text number in the body text area of the document. See the first macro, Note2Txt (discussed below), which can help you do that.

[The Note2Txt macro can move footnote text (or endnote text) into a separate document, which can then be used as a source to copy-and-paste the original notes into footnotes. To make this easy, open both documents side by side on screen.]

•  Second, you will then enter a corresponding superscripted footnote number with related note text in the "footnote" area -- that is, inside the borderless text box. Creating the text box can be done manually or, to make this process easier, you can use the second macro (InlineFN) below.


NOTE: This general method would most likely replace using the normal footnote feature (Insert, Footnote/Endnote) in the document. Therefore, it is best done on the final draft.


Step 1.
Use a macro to extract all notes into a separate document


First, you can convert (extract) normal footnotes into a separate document. Later you can copy and paste them into the inline footnote text boxes created with the next macro (see Step 2). 

This is easily done with the Note2Txt macro. Play it and choose the "Renumber notes where they were in the original document" option (which appears after the notes have been converted). 

This option also places an ordinary superscripted plain-text number (i.e., not a code) at the original footnote reference location in the body text. 

Then, following the conversion, you can play the macro below on any page with such superscripted numbers to create a borderless text box at the bottom of the page. You will then need to copy-and-paste the appropriate footnotes from the separate document created by Note2Txt into the text box. 

Step 2. Use a macro to create a text box on the current page

The macro below should work in WP9 and later versions. 

To copy the macro code into your program see here; to download the compiled macro (InlineFN.zip), click here.

Play it to produce a borderless text box at the bottom of the current page. 

Be sure to play it just ONCE per PAGE, otherwise, multiple boxes will overlap. 

The box will have a 2" horizontal line as a "footnote separator."

You can edit the box by clicking in it to add your own text. (Some sample text is used in the macro in the Type() command, but this can be deleted from the code, or later, from the text box.)

As you enter text into the box, it will expand vertically but stay on the same page. When done, click outside the box to return to the document.

The box is positioned between current page margins and is anchored to the page. Body text will flow around the box, but be aware that the information in the box that you type into it might not pertain to the current page if lots of text is added to, or deleted from, either the box or the body text.

HENCE, it is best to use this macro when the final draft is done, and to FREQUENTLY SAVE the document with a different name, perhaps numbering the new documents as you save them: See MultiSav for help with this.

[As noted, this macro can also be downloaded here. Then go to Step 3.]

// Macro begins here

// Inline footnote simulator.wcm
// (c) 2009 by Barry MacDonnell

If (VersionInfo (WordPerfectVersion!; FileMajorVersion!) < 9)
MessageBox (;"Sorry...";
   "This macro is for WordPerfect 9 and later versions")
Return
EndIf
If(?DocBlank)
MessageBox (;"Sorry...";
 "This macro cannot be played in an empty document")
Return
Endif

// Exit from any substructure:
pExitSubstructures ()

// Get and store some document information:
PosPageTop
vLM=MarginLeft()
vRM=MarginRight()
vLMpos:=?PaperWidth-(?PaperWidth-vLM)
vRMpos:=?PaperWidth-vRM
vBoxWidth:=vRMpos-vLMpos

// Create the text box:
BoxCreate(TextBox!)
// Edit its contents:
BoxContentEdit
// Add a hard return before the horizontal line:
HardReturn
// Create a footnote separator line:
GraphicsLineCreate
GraphicsLineType (Horizontal!)
GraphicsLineStyle (SingleLine!)
GraphicsLineLength (2.0")
GraphicsLineHorizontalPosition (Set!; 0.0")
GraphicsLineVerticalPosition (Set!; 0.167")
GraphicsLineEnd (Save!)
// Add a hard return after the horizontal line:
HardReturn
// Add text attributes and change relative size of text,
// if desired; DELETE this command if not needed:
AttributeRelativeSizeToggle(Small!)

// Type some sample text into the box;
// DELETE this command if not needed:
Type("SAMPLE: 1. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet. 2. Ut enim ad minim.")

// Exit from the box's content editing dialog -
SubstructureExit ()
// Set the size of box, border, position on page, etc. -
BoxWidth (vBoxWidth)
BoxHeight (AutoHeight!)
BoxBorder(NoBorder!)
BoxFill (FillStyleName: NoFill!)
BoxAttachTo (Anchor: Page!)
BoxStaysOnPage (State: Yes!) // Keep it on the page
BoxOverlap (State: Yes!) // Overlap any other boxes
BoxHorizontalAlignment (AlignMargins!;FullAlign!)
DefaultUnits(WPUnits!) // Use WP units in next command
BoxHorizontalPosition(vLMpos)
BoxVerticalAlignment(Bottom!)
BoxTextFlow(NeitherSide!)
// Update changes and exit from box -
BoxUpdateDisplay ()
BoxEnd (State: Save!)

// Exit from macro:
pExitSubstructures ()
Return

// - - - Procedures, routines, etc., here:
// Exit from any header, footer, footnote, endnote, text box, etc.:
Procedure pExitSubstructures ()
While (?Substructure)
vSubDoc:=?CurrentSubDoc
SubstructureExit
If (vSubDoc=10 or vSubDoc=11)
BoxEnd (Save!)
EndIf
EndWhile
vImageType:=?BoxContentType
If(vImageType=3) BoxEnd (Save!) Endif
EndProc

// Macro ends 
Step 3. Copy the extracted footnotes into the text box
As noted above you will then need to copy-and-paste the appropriate extracted footnotes from the separate document created by Note2Txt.
 
Finally,
footnotes that are too long can be edited to shorten them or perhaps they can be split (manually) between two text boxes; it will be up to you to decide.

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