Footers, and Watermarks - how
to start, stop, suppress, edit, change, replace, delay, overlay, and
• Page identification:
Automatically set up "second pages" with "page identifiers" using
Suppress and Delay codes
tips - Create even
and odd page identification in
headers or footers - Create a third type of
"header" or "footer" for additional identifying information
- Creating "DRAFT," "COPY," and other identification stamps on the
pages of a document
- An automated letterhead template with second page identifiers
How to create "Continued
on Page x" footers
where "x" is the number of the following page
footers simultaneously (one for page number,
the other for separator
line and filename, etc.) so that items do not overlap
margins - Creating text outside a document's
margins, along the edge of the page(s)
• Other related pages:
and portrait pages:
How to maintain headers, footers, and page numbering at the top and
bottom of all pages when you mix landscape orientation with portrait
- Modify the legal Pleading feature (in Watermark B)
Can you use
multi-page watermarks? See the note
A primer on 'Reveal Codes'
- a macro to create dynamic headers (a/k/a "running heads" or "floating
headers") -- i.e., headers that change page-to-page with the section,
topic, or heading on the same page (-- also see the footnote on that page
for simpler "running headers" and "running footer" macros)
Note: WordPerfect menu
choices on this site
refer to the <WordPerfect> menu
(right-click on the top menu bar for a choice of menus). If you use a
<Microsoft Word> menu, the choices might be absent from your menu
(but not from the program), or they might be found under another menu
selection. See here for more.
[If you already are familiar with
these things, you can skip down
to "How to start them" and other topics (or use a link in the left sidebar).]
Headers or Headings?
These are common terms, but ot helps to use the right one when you discuss issues with other users.
are format structures ("containers") that can contain text (and
optionally, graphic elements and page numbering) that are used
inside (i.e., below) the page's top margin,
between that margin and the body text area. [Footers are
similar structures but they are located at the bottom of the
page, inside (i.e., above) the page's bottom margin.]
Once created, headers [and footers] automatically continue
their contents until they are either discontinued (stopped) or replaced (superseded). These formatting
issues are discussed below.
Headings, on the other hand, are words or short phrases in the document's body text area
that introduce or divide a larger body of work, such as a chapter or a section of a
topic. They are created by typing some text and then (generally)
applying formatting in a way that visually sets them off from other
Once created, headings display their text only at their current location. They can appear
anywhere on the page.
WordPerfect comes with several Heading paragraph styles (easily available on the text property bar or with Format, Styles). When these styles are
applied to some text, they automatically apply their formatting to the
text, such as a new font size, bold or italics, etc. They also are specially
"marked" internally so that their text will be automatically included
in any Table of Contents, as explained here.
Some general things to know about Headers, Footers, and Watermarks
• Headers, footers, and watermarks are available to create, edit, or
discontinue (i.e., stop) from the Insert menu on the top menu bar in
Insert, Header/Footer or Watermark menu choices, along with a few
others mentioned on this site, might only be available when using the
program in WordPerfect mode (i.e., with a <WordPerfect> menu), not when using the Microsoft mode. If you don't see the choice, see here.
will be visible onscreen in Page mode (turn it on with View, Page on the top menu bar) or
if you are directly editing them. By design, they do NOT appear in Draft mode.
They usually contain text, but they can also contain graphics (images, lines, boxes, etc.)
and even format codes (current date, filename, line
justification, columns, tables, etc.). Headers and footers can also
contain page numbering (see left sidebar as well as the tips below).
• Like page numbering (Format, Page, Numbering) they are considered "repeating elements" or "repeating substructures".
This is because they are designed to automatically display on more than one page
even though you (typically) need only create them once in a document,
unless you need to change their contents for various sections of
the document, such as with book chapters.
The key word to remember here
They are not actually part of each page like body text. They are merely
displayed (and will print) on each page following the page where they
were created unless they are replaced or discontinued further down in
the document. (More on this in the sections below.)
Tip: Watermarks are
particularly useful to display text and/or graphics on multiple pages.
Since a watermark essentially lies under the main document it will not
impact the main document's formatting -- it merely "bleeds" though the
document. (You can even used rotated text boxes inside a watermark to
make use of the area outside page margins, such as is often done for
document stamps; see examples such as DocStamp, EdgeText, and PrntCopy in the Library.)
provides two identical "flavors" (or options) for each of these three
elements, designated with the suffix "A" and "B".
you have six
easy ways to add extra information -- often called "page
identification" -- to individual or multiple pages in your
Note: One flavor of
a given element (e.g., Watermark A) is initially and
functionally the same as the
other flavor (e.g., Watermark B). Which you use is a matter of
preference, although some features (such as the factory provided Pleading
feature) default to a
particular flavor. Note also that both A and B will display in the same area on the
Tip: You can use either flavor of a
given element more than once
(i.e., sequentially, over one or more pages) in the same document, since the most recently
created one will automatically stop (i.e., discontinue and supersede)
the earlier one of the same flavor at that point, and then display
its newer contents going forward in the document. The prior
existing version will still display its contents up to that point.
(This is a common task with books and other multi-section documents.)
See the various topics below, which will help give you control over
Tip: You can use
both flavors of a given element simultaneously
on the same page(s),
much like an old-fashioned overhead projector which let
you lay transparent film sheets ("transparencies") on top of each other
to combine their
projected information on a screen. [See the left sidebar for some tips
using two footers) using this layering apporach. See also "How to overlay them" below.]
• Some additional features of these repeating elements are available on
the context-sensitive Property bar that should appear when your cursor
is inside the element.
Some notes and
tips on Property bars:
¤ Can't see property bars?
Property bars for these elements (and many other items such as
currently selected text, tables, and columns) are visible only when
your cursor is inside one of them and the View, Toolbars, Property Bar option is
enabled. See this page for more on what these items are and how they differ from regular toolbars.
on property bars?
The number and type of functions varies with the type of Property bar,
which is "context-sensitive" and provides you with the most typically
useful functions in the form of buttons or drop lists.
bars can also
Once a header,
footer or watermark is visible on the screen
(see the next topics, "How
to start them"
or "How to change them...")
and your cursor is inside that "substructure," it is worth exploring
its Property bar to become familiar with some of the features
to that element.
For example, there are buttons to insert page numbers inside a
header or footer; or set headers or footers to display on even
and odd pages; or set the distance between headers and footers and the adjacent body text; or set a watermark's shading. (Example: See Footnote 5 for how to use a footer to "fix" the distance between body text and page numbers and the bottom edge of the page.)
• About page numbering
inside headers or footers (some tips)...
If you use page numbers inside a header or footer [N.B.: there's a button to insert page numbers on the Header or Footer property bar (shortcut alternative: Ctrl+P)] you
probably will want to turn normal page numbering off if it was previously turned on in that document:
Use Format, Page, Numbering, Position:
<No page numbering>. [Or simply find and delete the [Pg Num Pos] code in Reveal Codes.]
you will get two
numbers on each page, one inside the header or footer and one in the
page's text area. [For more on page numbering see the links in the
on the left.]
☼ Need to stop page numbering in a header or footer on one or more specific pages?
What doesn't work: Enabling either Format, Page, Numbering, Position:<No page numbering> or Format,
Page, Suppress, Page Numbering on that document page will not work to
stop page numbering inside headers or footers from displaying. Any
numbering in the header or footer will continue to display in the
header or footer area regardless of those settings. [These two settings
control numbering in the main text areas, not inside headers or
What works: You can
create a new header or footer on the appropriate document page, of the same type (A or B) and with the same text as before (if desired), but without
any page numbering codes. It will replace the existing header or footer
from that page forward. Then you can re-establish page numbering on a
following page (if desired) with another new header or footer that contains
your original text and page numbering format codes. See "How to edit, change, or replace them" below.
☼ Setting up page numbering (e.g., "Page x" or "Page
x of y") inside
a header or footer: See Footnote 6 below.
☼ To reset page numbers to another value midway through a document when page numbering is used inside
a header or footer: See Footnote 7 below.
and footers can be used simultaneously to create separate numbering
schemes on the same pages -- something the default numbering feature
cannot do. See Footnote 8 below.
This web page (both below
and on the left sidebar) was designed to be a
comprehensive reference to help you solve formatting problems
or other issues you might have with the header, footer, or watermark
many other powerful programs, things that are unfamiliar in WordPerfect
might seem overly complicated or time-consuming at first. Using them, however, is fairly simple and
straightforward, especially if you understand their underlying logic.
you probably will not need to use much of the information here in your
everyday work -- the first section below might be all you need --
but you might want to take a few minutes to
scan the entire page so you'll know what is here should you ever need
them, exit from them, and see them on screen
• To start them -- i.e., create a brand
new header, footer, or
cursor in the body text area at the top of the page on which you want
to start the header, footer, or watermark, above all text and other
items. For most documents this is usually on page 1.
Click on the Insert menu choice on the top menu bar.
Select the element you need -- Header/Footer or Watermark -- then select the type (A or B).
[These choices are available when using the program in WordPerfect mode
(i.e., with a <WordPerfect> menu), not when using the Microsoft
mode. If you don't see it, see here.]
noted, one type of a given element (e.g., Watermark A) is initially and
functionally the same as the other type (e.g., Watermark B). Which you
use is a matter of preference, although some features such as the Pleading feature default to a particular type (pleadings use Watermark B).
¤ Note also that both the A and B types of a given element will display in the same physical area on the page (see Tips below). You can use both types (A and B) of a given element simultaneously,
much like old-fashioned overhead projectors let you lay transparencies
on top of each other to combine their information on a screen.
Generally you will want to position their individual contents so they
do not visually overlap. [See the left sidebar for some tips (e.g.,
using two footers) using this layering apporach.]
Click on Create.
Enter (i.e., type or paste) the text, graphics, table, etc., to create the header, footer, or watermark. [Important: If you do not insert anything before exiting back to the document, the structure will not be created.]
¤ Once created, you can edit,
replace, delay, combine, or remove these items as explained
in the following sections. Editing -- probably the most common task --
takes only a mouse click to "get into" the structure to change
¤ However, changing the
information in these elements at different
document locations, or
telling the program where to
start or end displaying the information,
requires slightly different methods depending on your formatting
requirements. [To change
of the elements -- e.g., their own fonts or page margins -- see Footnote 3.]
¤ See the
left column (sidebar) on this page for information about page numbering and page identification,
which often use headers, footers, and/or watermarks.
• To exit from them and return to the
headers and footers:
- Click anywhere
in the main document area
- click the Close
button on the Header/Footer property bar.
- Click the Close
button on the Watermark property bar
- click File,
Close to close the watermark window.
- Press Esc. If you are also inside a graphic image caption or in a text box embedded in the header/footer/watermark, press Esc again.
• To see them on screen after you exit from
them you should not
be in Draft view [on the View menu]. Use Page or Two Pages
view. Draft view hides them to minimize what some users
think of as "screen clutter" so they can concentrate on just the body
☼ In the Reveal Codes pane
(enable it with View, Reveal Codes), and with your cursor in the main
document area (the "body text" area), these structures will appear as a
single code (e.g., [Header A] or [Watermark B]). These codes can be deleted in Reveal
Codes by simply dragging them from Reveal Codes or using the
<Delete> or <Backspace> keys. They can also be moved downward by typing or inserting material above them.
If they are moved down this way, they might start on a different page
from the one you wanted. Hence, it is a good idea to start these
structures at the very top of the page, above all other items
Laura Acklen's tutorial
on creating headers and footers for representative examples,
such as adding page numbers in a header or footer, adding the current
document's filename, even/odd page placement, etc. She also posted a tutorial
on page numbering.
an alternative to the above "Insert menu" method, you can delay
starting the header, footer, or watermark to another page. This is
usually done at the top of the first page of the document with a Delay
code: see the Delay section
below. It will cause the header, footer, or watermark to appear on the
specified page and pages following that page, but not appear on page 1.
Note that there are certain advantages
to this alternative method, as explained in the Delay
Related topics (below) -
• To edit them later see "How to edit, change or replace them (i.e., edit their contents)" below.
• To stop them from displaying on particular pages see the next section.
• To delay them to another page see below.
• To remove them see below.
How to stop or suppress them - 3 methods
• Method A. You
can suppress any of these elements (and/or page numbering, too)
on a given page. [For more on the Suppress feature see here.]
cursor at the top of the page (in the body text of the document) where
you want to suppress the desired element(s). Then click Format,
Page, Suppress to bring up the Suppress dialog (screen shot).
elements will still show up on other pages (if any). They are merely
stopped from displaying on the page
with a [Suppress] code.
This can be handy if you only need a page or
two without headers, footers, or watermarks. (If you need larger sections without these items, see the next two methods below.)
For example, if
Header A is suppressed on page 3, you would have the page sequence,
AAXAAA...., where "X" is a page without the header.
(showing the first several pages) the header's content is displayed on
all pages except the page where the header was suppressed -
some early versions of WordPerfect, editing pre-existing
choices in the Suppress dialog to change your choices can cause the
Suppress code to be removed from the document (it's a bug), so it is a
good idea to examine the document to see if this happens. If it does,
simply reapply your choices at that page location with Format,
☼ See also the example
below, which uses both
[Suppress] and [Delay] codes.
☼ Another way to "skip" a header, footer, or watermark on a particular page:
 Simply replace the header, footer, or watermark at the desired location with a new empty one (of the same type, A or B) on that page.
Thus, in the example scheme above, page 3 would contain a new Header A. However...
Note that when you create an empty header, footer, or watermark you will need to insert at least one character or code in it -- otherwise the program will not create it.
Solution: You can use either -
(A) a space character (<Spacebar>) or non-printing format code; or
(B) a text character that is colored the same as the page (typically: white) by selecting it and using Format, Font, Color; or
(C) a character to which you have applied the Hidden attribute by
selecting it and using Format, Font, Hidden (it will not print unless
you display all hidden text by enabling View, Hidden Text).
 Then create
a new instance of the original header on the page that follows the
"skipped" page (e.g., on page 4 in the example above). You should be able to
simply copy and paste the original header's contents into the new
header. This should provide continuation of the header that displays on pages 1-2 (in our example above).
☼ See also "Task C: To replace (supersede or supplant) the content of headers, footers, or watermarks midway in the document" below.
Method B. You
can discontinue a header, footer or watermark on a specific page.
This is done
from the Insert menu (e.g., Insert, Header/Footer, Header A,
an item means that the item will show up on all pages prior
to the one where the setting was enabled. It is normally done at the
bottom of the last page where you want the header, footer, or watermark
to show up.
these structures might be useful when you do not want any more of them
to show up in the rest of your document (e.g., in an Appendix or Index)
or for a given section of your document (i.e., spanning more than one
Note that you can
create a new header, footer, or watermark of the same "flavor" (A or B)
from the Insert menu (e.g., Insert, Header/Footer, Header A,
Create) and it will automatically
discontinue the existing item, and replace it with the new version from
that point forward until it is discontinued or replaced with yet
another new version (if any). You do not have to
discontinue a header, footer, or watermark to start a new, different one.
See the next section, "How to change or
example, Header A is discontinued on page 3, you would have the page
(showing the first several pages) -
Method C. You can delay
discontinuing the header, footer, or watermark to another page. (This is similar
to Method B above.)
This is usually
done at the top of the first page, in the body text area of the
document. It will cause the header, footer, or watermark to appear on
page 1, but stop appearing on page 2 (or some other specified page).
See the Delay section below.
or replace them (i.e., edit their contents)
related concepts here depending
on what task you wish to accomplish.
• Task A: To change the content of particular headers,
footers, or watermarks:
change the content of the currently displayed header, footer, or watermark
(either A or B), you can edit the
current version of the item in one of three ways.
cursor on the page that displays the item you want to change, then -
click on Insert, Header/Footer, <Select an item>,
then click the Edit button;
(even easier) -
click inside the
(which should be visible, assuming you are not in Draft view) and edit
or (alternatively) -
in Reveal Codes, double-click on the code ([Header], [Footer], or
Then add new
content or change the existing content. Then exit
from the item back to your document.
sure to read the Important
Notes below about what this
to the display (and printout)
of the content on
for that particular item.
☼ To change
fonts or margins for these items, see Footnote
☼ Be sure to
explore the buttons on the context-sensitive property bars that
appear when your cursor is inside one of these
structures. The buttons allow adjusting the header/footer's distance to
body text, its even/odd page placement, a watermark's shading, etc. One
of them lets you quickly insert a horizontal line. Pass your cursor
over these buttons to see their functions appear in a balloon tip.
exit from these substructures
and return to the main document:
headers and footers:
click anywhere in the main document area
click the Close
button on the Header/Footer property bar.
click the Close button on the Watermark property bar
Close to close the watermark window.
□ To see
them on screen
after you exit from them you should not be in Draft
view [on the View menu]. Use Page view or Two Pages view.
Draft view hides them to minimize what some users think of as "screen
clutter" so they can concentrate on just the body text.
such editing changes will affect the display
(and the printout) of the particular header/footer/watermark version
that you are editing.
is, the changes will show up on
any previous pages
where the current item is displayed, as well as on any following
pages. Hence, you need
only edit the current item on any
page where it displays in order to change the same item on all
pages where it displays.
But what if you want to
change the content of an item at various locations in the document? To actually replace
(i.e., supersede) the content of one header/footer/watermark with a new
further down in the document (e.g., a header containing a new
title), see the "To replace...content..."
(showing the first several pages) -
If you Edit Header A on
page 4 to make a change to
...it will produce this change in the document (i.e., revised header content is displayed on all pages that both precede and follow the edited instance of that header):
Task B: To change the format of headers, footers, and watermarks:
That is, to
(1) change the font in headers, footers, or watermarks; or
(2) change the margins
headers, footers, or watermarks; or
(3) set the separation distance between headers and footers and the body text area...
Task C: To replace (supersede or
supplant) the content of headers, footers, or watermarks midway in the document:
To replace the
content of an existing header, footer, or watermark somewhere in the document after
the page where you first created that item and leave the
previous version of that item unchanged you must create
a new header, footer, or watermark (of the same type, A or B) at the
new location where you want the change to take effect.
The new item
will then supersede -- but not delete -- the prior item.
items display continuously in a document, some users may conceptualize
this process as "un-linking" new header/footer/watermark material from
the existing (i.e., previous) material.]
This is often
done to change chapter or section titles in a manuscript's header. Just
create a new header of the same type (A or B) on
the new page with Insert, Header/Footer, Header (A or B),
Create, and it will supplant the old one.
To change the
text or other content in Header A starting on page
4, and continuing on the following pages
(but not on the previous pages), you would -
• place your
cursor on page 4 -- usually at the top of the page;
• click Insert,
Header/Footer, Header A, Create (not Edit);
• type (or
paste) the new content inside the new, empty header (caution:
don't delete or edit the [Open Style] code that is inside the header
area, unless you need to do so for a specific reason; see Footnote
• exit from
the header by clicking anywhere in the main document area, or by
clicking the Close button on the property bar.
now see the new Header A's content take effect on that page,
and the old Header A's content should stop on the previous
page as shown schematically in the diagram below. (You will also see a
new [Header A] code in the Reveal Codes pane on page 4. This
tells WordPerfect where to start the new version of Header A.)
noted, if you simply edit the current header (e.g., with Insert,
Header/Footer, Footer A, Edit) you will change the current
item wherever it is displayed in the
document. That is, the change will show up in the same item on all
previous pages as well as all following pages. To change
Header A (using our example) to something else, you must cause
a new Header A to "take over" from the older
Header A. (The same thing applies to footers and watermarks.)
try and replace an existing header/footer/watermark at some point after
page 1 by editing the existing item, rather than by creating a brand
new one on the later page. This is a common mistake, and probably stems
from the idea that headers, footers, or watermarks seem to "flow" only
in one direction -- forward to the end of the document -- much like
applying a new font type at a specific location.
In fact, editing one
of these elements simply changes the display of
that item on all pages where it is set to display
-- both on previous pages (if any) and on following pages (if any).
These elements are displayed in both directions
from the page where you are viewing them.
replace the content of one of these items from a particular page forward,
think in terms of superseding or supplanting it, not in terms of
You can also
think of these items as single "structures" or small "containers" that
-- once created on a given page -- have the ability to show up on all
pages from the point of creation onward.
change the same structure (e.g., Header A) later in the document by
editing any single display of it, not just on the
page where it was created. All "instances" of that structure will
change immediately -- forward until discontinued, or another item of
the same type (A or B) is encountered, and backward to the creation
page. (You are really only dipping down into a single structure when
you edit a repeating element on any page where it displays. WordPerfect
takes care of displaying it wherever -- and however often -- it is
For those who might want to automate
the creation of new headers at various locations in a document, you should be able to
do it with a macro such as on the DynaHead
("dynamic headers") page in the library here.
the DynaHead macro has several formatting options, you might prefer a
simpler macro to quickly insert a new header at the current location in
the document by simply selecting some text on the page (or by typing
the text into a small dialog); if so, see the footnote on the DynaHead
the same structure so that the new content appears at a
specific point in mid-document, thereby leaving the display
of the older version of that item on previous pages alone, you can do
one of two things:
the old structure (if you don't want any more of them to display on
subsequent pages, as demonstrated in the previous section, "How to stop them");
create a new, revised one (of the same type, A or B) on
a new page, as in the next diagram, if you want
them to display on subsequent pages. Most often you will
choose this option.
Tip: You can use the latter method multiple times in a document -- e.g., to create a new header for each Chapter in a book.
diagram illustrates a single replacement header on
(showing the first several pages) -
If you Create a new Header
A on page 4...
Create a new
...it will produce this change in the document (i.e., the new header content is displayed from page 4 onward):
them to another page
add to this mix of options, you can delay the onset of any of these
elements by one or more pages, and/or delay when they should stop.
That is, you can -
of a new item (e.g., delay the start of a new footer until the second
the stopping or
"discontinuance" of an item (e.g., shut off, on
page 2, a header, footer and/or watermark that was created on page 1);
of an item until a specific number of pages have passed.
advantage of this feature, and its most common use, is to allow you to
set up special formatting for a subsequent page -- but these actions
will only have an effect if there are subsequent
pages. Otherwise, they exist only as format codes inside a "container"
code: the [Delay] code you will see if you use this feature.
To use this feature
in a document, click Format, Page, Delay Codes, X
(where 'X' is the number of pages to delay the action -- usually this
is set to "1"). Typically, you perform these steps on page 1 so that
you can delay some action until page 2, if there is a
This opens the Define
Delay Codes window, and any actions you specify there -- such as
starting a new header, discontinuing an existing footer, or setting new
page margins (but see the NOTE below) -- will be carried out on the specified
To exit from the
Define Delay Codes window, you can use the Close button on the Delay
Codes toolbar or on the property bar (depending on which is displayed).
Alternatively, use File, Close to close that window.
If, for example,
Header B is delayed until page 2, you would have
the sequence XBBBBB....
(showing the first several pages) -
|| Header B
|| Header B
|| Header B
|| Header B
|| Header B
And if, for example,
Footer A is discontinued on page 2 and Footer B is started
on page 2 ...
| Footer A
|| Footer B
|| Footer B
|| Footer B
|| Footer B
|| Footer B
In the first case you
could, of course, simply suppress the element on page 1. But because
delay codes are created in their own special Define Delayed Codes
window, you can delay several items with the same [Delay] code, which
might be a better way of keeping them together.
Cautions when using [Delay] codes
There are a couple of things to keep in mind when using a [Delay] code:
(1) Searching for them: You can't use Edit, Find and Replace
(or a macro routine) to search inside a [Delay] code. However, you can
use F&R to remove Headers, Footers, or Watermarks: see "How to remove them".
(2) Deleting them:
If you deliberately or accidentally delete a [Delay] code you might
delete some codes inside them that you might want to keep. It is best
to edit the [Delay] code (see the tip below) and examine the code's
contents to see which item(s) you want to delete.
☼ For a comprehensive reference on [Delay] codes see here.
☼ Editing the contents
of a [Delay] code:
You can open
an existing [Delay] code the same way you can open (to edit) many
WordPerfect codes. Just double click on the code in Reveal Codes. This opens the Define Delay Codes window (a full size window, not a small dialog).
¤ Delay codes are actually a pair of codes (when the delay is active for a subsequent page).
The first [Delay] code
(typically located on page 1) is the clickable one, and the second,
non-clickable one is the "activation point" or "marker" where the code
will take effect.
Like all paired WordPerfect format codes, if you
delete one, the other is also deleted.
¤ You cannot
use Find & Replace (or the macro equivalent, SearchString) to
search inside [Delay] codes, [Style] codes, or text variables (a form
These are limitations of the program, at least for recent versions of
it. You will have to edit the [Delay] or [Style] code by
double-clicking on the code in Reveal Codes to edit it.
To exit from the
Define Delay Codes window, you can use the Close button on the Delay
Codes toolbar or property bar (depending on which is displayed).
Alternatively, use File, Close to close that window.
☼ You can delay
other things besides Headers, Footers, and Watermarks. For example, you can set new page margins
on page 2, or return (reset) them to the 1-inch default on page 2. But see this tip
first: A small bug was introduced in WP10 (and still present in later
versions) that requires an extra step in the Delay Codes procedure.
☼ Advanced tip:
You can hide the [Delay] code inside the document's initial [Open
Style] code to prevent accidental deletion or movement of the [Delay]
code. See Footnote 1.
☼ See also the example below, which uses [Suppress] and [Delay] codes.
It is worth
remembering that, like large transparent pieces of film, you can overlay
either type (A or B) of a repeating element with the other type by
using them on the same page(s).
Since A and B of the
same element will occupy the same physical space on the page, be sure to
separate the text or graphics inside them so the material in one doesn't
conflict with (i.e., overlap or block) the material in the other on the
Usually, setting different line
justification or adding a few
hard returns will separate the materials vertically, and using different left/middle/right justification in each type can accomplish separation horizontally.
For more precision, you can use Format,
|Headers, footers, and
watermarks are created with WordPerfect format codes,
so you can delete them from the document by
simply deleting the codes. (If the document is long or complex you should back it up first.)
Here are some general
□ Open the Reveal
Codes window to locate the code. Then -
drag the [Header],
[Footer], or [Watermark] code from the Reveal Codes window to delete
use the [Delete] or [Backspace] keys to delete the code.
□ If you need to
quickly delete all codes of a given type in the
document, place your cursor at the very top of the document (before all
codes and text), then click Edit, Find and Replace.
• In the Find
and Replace dialog that appears, delete anything that might be in the
"Find:" field; then click Match, Codes from the
• In the Codes
dialog that appears, scroll down to code you want to remove:
Header A, Header B, Footer A,
Footer B, Watermark A, or Watermark B. Click
on the listed item in the Codes dialog, then click Insert
& Close. You should now see the code in the "Find:"
can also copy the code from your document and paste it into the Find
and Replace field.
• In the Find
and Replace dialog's "Replace with:" field, choose <Nothing>
(or simply delete the contents of this field with Delete or Backspace),
then click Find Next (to find the first code), then
deleting each remaining code with Find Next ... Replace,
or simply click Replace All.
You cannot use Find and Replace to find codes inside a [Delay] code, as
This is a
limitation of the program, at least for recent versions of it. You will
have to edit the [Delay] code by double-clicking on the [Delay] code in
Reveal Codes and then removing the header, footer, or watermark code
contained in it.
An example of these elements in the same document such as a letterhead with extra pages:
How to modify the current document or a custom
template to use different headers, footers, and watermarks at
various locations (and also change page numbering and margins)
the current document:
you can use this method in the current document (.WPD), but
("Suppress and Delay") macro probably is more convenient if you have to
do it often. For future
documents, you probably will want to modify
(.WPT) on which those documents are based. See the procedures below.
new custom templates:
template with File, New (or New from
Project), Options button, Create WP
Template. A new document will open, named Template1. You can
create everything here, or import a previously created (one page)
document with Insert, File.
existing custom templates:
template with File, New (or New from
Project), select the template by name, then click the Options
button and choose Edit WP Template.
from the SupDelay
Let's say you want
to use Header A, Footer A, and/or Watermark A for your first page
letterhead design (or to supplement the design of preprinted
stationery), or for the title page of a company report.
Assume you want to
use Header B, Footer B, and/or Watermark B for other things (such as a
name, date, document title or page number) on the second and subsequent
pages -- if there are any such pages in a given document.
Also assume you
have set new margins on Page 1, and want to return the margins to some
preferred default setting on subsequent pages, if there are any.
(Sometimes body text "runs over.") You don't have
to create any header, footer, or watermark, but if you do you can set
them up like this:
| Page 1:
|| Page 2 and subsequent
| Header A available
|| Header B available
| Footer A available
|| Footer B available
| Watermark A available
| Watermark B available
|| Watermark B available
| No page numbers
on Page 1
|| Page numbering
continues (if page numbering was turned on)
| Page margins can
|| Page margins
reset to 1" (the WordPerfect default setting -- but this can be easily
changed; also be sure to read the Note
in the delay section above on this page)
Go to the top of
your template (i.e., page 1) and set up both varieties (A and B) of the
headers and footers, set up one or both watermarks, and set new Page 1
margins if desired.
play the SupDelay
macro - or - manually suppress and
• Assuming you
have used Header A and Footer A on the first page of the template, you
can set up Header B (and Footer B) for the second and subsequent pages.
Do both of these things while editing page 1 of the template. That is,
create all headers and footers on the first page.
• Next, you need
to (1) discontinue (i.e., stop) Header A and Footer A
on the second and subsequent pages (you don't need them anymore), and (2) supress
Header B and Footer B on page 1 (you don't want them to appear until
- The first
task (discontinue Header A and Footer A) is done with Format,
Page, Delay Codes, 1, OK. Then click Header/Footer,
Header A, Discontinue. Do the same for Footer A. You can also
discontinue Watermark A, if it is used, and reset margins for the
second and subsequent pages. Then click the Close
button to return to the main template window.
- For the
second task (suppress Header B, etc.), go to the top of the document
and click Format, Page, Suppress. On the dialog
that pops up, choose Header B, Footer B, and (probably) Page
Numbering. Click OK.
• Save the
template with File, Save. If it's a new template,
save it in the group category of your choice.
☼ On page 2 of
the template you can create a new Header A, Footer A, and Watermark A
instead of discontinuing (stopping) them. The newly created elements
will simply take over on page 2, automatically discontinuing the same
elements that are on page 1.
☼ You can set
a default header or footer separation
distance (i.e., the distance between body text and the
header/footer) by temporarily creating an empty header or footer in the
template, clicking the Header/Footer Distance
button on the Property bar and setting the new distance, then clicking
outside the header or footer to dismiss it (unless you truly want to
create an actual header or footer for all new
documents!). You should see a [Header Sep] or
[Footer Sep] code in the template's body text area, which will
be replicated in all new documents.
☼ Several of
the above techniques were used in the LETTERHD template
in the Library.
Hide the code [...continued
from "How to delay them to another
Here's a tip to let you
"hide" a [Delay] code so it is less likely to be
moved or deleted accidentally.
¤ You can hide many other format
codes, not just [Delay] codes. This is explained in a tip on the page
on setting default formatting for all new, blank documents here.
¤ However, you probably don't want to delay headers/footers/watermarks for every new blank document based on the default template! Such delays are more often used in custom templates or an individual document -- which is assumed below.
¤ For the purposes of the 3-step example -- which deals with delaying a specific custom header/footer/watermark -- we'll just hide the [Delay] code involved with that particular type of structure.
¤ You should be sure to create the codes (you wish to hide) in the document text area first (i.e., not inside another code, as noted in the caution below Step 3). For example, here's
a post on WordPerfect Universe that demonstrates the general "hide the
code" technique -- but hides both a [Header] code and its related
[Delay] code so that the header appears on page 1 only. [See Footnote 9 for the transcripted steps.]
Step 1. Open
Reveal Codes, and in the main document area
select just the new [Delay] code (this is most
easily done with <Shift+arrow>), and cut it to the
clipboard with <Ctrl+X>. (Essentially, you'll want to move the code into
the initial style code in Step 2 below.)
codes are actually made up of two
codes: the first [Delay] code (usually located at the top of
the document) tells WordPerfect what to do; the second [Delay Codes]
code appears on the (delayed) page and tells WordPerfect to start doing
You can double-click the first code of the pair to open the Define
Delay Codes window; if Reveal Codes is open you can see what is inside
the [Delay] code, which acts as a sort of container for other codes
(and, sometimes, text or other things, such as styles)
The second code
of the pair ([Delay Codes]) is not clickable. Finally, like all paired WordPerfect
format codes, if you delete one the other is also deleted.
Double-click the initial [Open Style:
DocumentStyle] code at the very top of the document; this
opens the Style Editor for the document.
Step 3. Paste
the [Delay] code into
the Styles Editor's Contents field, then click OK.
• Just remember to look
inside the initial style code if you need to revise or delete the
You cannot use Find & Replace (or the
macro equivalent, SearchString) to search inside [Delay] codes, [Style]
codes, or text variables (a form of Style). These are limitations of
the program, at least for recent versions of it. You will have to edit
the [Delay] or [Style] code by double-clicking on the code in Reveal
Codes to edit it.
• You can use more than
one [Delay] code in the document's initial style.
• Caution: Do not try to create a [Delay] code for a Header,
Footer, or Watermark directly inside the document's
(or template's) initial style's Styles Editor by using the menu in the
Styles Editor dialog, or the program may "hang" on you under some
conditions. Instead, either cut the [Delay] code
from the document and paste into the Style Editor as explained above,
or copy an existing [Delay] code from another
document and paste it into the Styles Editor.
• Macro writers: You can easily incorporate formatting codes
inside a document's (or template's) initial style with a macro. See here for an
Inside the Header
or Footer area [...continued
from the example in "How to change or replace them", above]
Style: HeaderA] code inside the Header area (a similar code
exists for Footers and Watermarks) is designed to apply system default format
settings for the header (or footer or watermark) areas--
which, in this particular instance, comes from the system style,
Normally, you will not
want to delete this code, since it might be applying formatting from
the system style.
Also, unless you need to
apply special formatting -- or even some text -- inside this code, you
normally will have little need to edit it (by
double-clicking on the code). The reason: Any
changes inside this code will show up in all
versions of Header A in the document -- backward and forward in the
document -- not just in the new version going forward from that page in
the document. (But see Footnote 3,
for an explanation of when this might be useful. Also see Footnote
4 for how to modify it so it
becomes the default for future documents.)
Modifying the format
of Headers, Footers, and Watermarks
By default, these
substructures inherit their formatting from the document's initial (or
default) style settings.
That is, whatever font and margins were set in
the current document's initial [Open Style:
DocumentStyle] code -- which in turn, usually comes from the template the document is
based on -- will become the initial font and margins for the header, footer, or
• To change the
font used in the
current header, footer, or watermark, locate the cursor
inside it and simply set a new font and/or font size from the
or from the Format, Font menu. You can also select
some text first to apply a font to just the selection. You can also add
new justification (even left-center-right mixed
justification to a single line), or add bold, italics, color,
or other text attributes. [If you want to set the font, font size, or
other formatting to be the default for your headers or footers (or even
just one of them), see Footnote 4.]
• To change the
left and/or right margins
in these substructures when the cursor is inside them,
you can simply drag the left or right margin guidelines
(be sure to enable the checkbox, "Drag to move guidelines" in View,
Guidelines). Alternatively, when the cursor is inside them, click Format,
Margins and specify the left and right margins.
Note that when you create a header or footer (Insert, Header/Footer) the Headers/Footers dialog box that appears has a checkbox option to "Align with document margins".
If you enable (tick) the option the left and right margins for the new
header (or footer) will line up with the left/right page margins at that location. However, if you change the left/right page margins further down in the document's text the header/footer margins at that location will not automatically change to align them. If you need them to align, just use the manual drag method in the previous paragraph. (Clearly, this probably is best done on the final draft.)
you have replaced
the same header, footer, or watermark of the same type (A or B) one or
more times in the document, then (by design) each replacement
supersedes the previous substructure of that type. So, any font or
margin change you make in one of them will not carry over to the
others. Therefore, if you want to apply, say, a new font to all
versions of several Header A substructures wherever they appear in the
document, it is much easier to edit the HeaderA
style using Format, Styles on the main WordPerfect menu. Your edits
will be global: they will modify all HeaderA's in the current document,
in one operation.
• To change the
top and/or bottom margins
in header/footer substructures, you must work from the main document
screen (not from inside the header/footer substructure) and either [A] drag their
horizontal page margin (dotted) guidelines up or down, or [B] specify a new top/bottom margin
setting in the Format, Margins menu. For watermarks, the second method is the only way to set up new top and bottom margins.
Hence, to move a header (for example) upward you would have to move the top page margin upward a small amount. This adjusts the distance above the header -- i.e., the area outside the page margin,
not the distance between the header and body text. The latter can be
done from the property bar, which is discussed below. You might need to
adjust both the horizontal page margin and the separation distance to
achieve the effect you want.
Note that you cannot create or move a header or footer outside
(some might say "into") the page margins (i.e., between the page margin
and the physical edge of the page). You can, however, simulate this
format (see here).
features (buttons) that allow
- adjusting the header/footer's
separation distance to body text;
- setting even/odd/every page placement;
- setting a watermark's
- quickly inserting a horizontal line.
Pass your cursor over these buttons to see their functions appear in a
• You can set a
default header or footer separation
the distance between body text and the header/footer) for new documents
by modifying the default template; see the Tips section at the end of
the example above.
formatting defaults for Headers, Footers, and Watermarks
If you want to set the
font, font size, or other formatting to be the default for your
headers, footers, or watermarks (or even just one of them) in future
documents, you can do it by setting them in the template
which spawns your documents. Otherwise, headers and footers use the
default font and font size set for the body text area, so changing them
in the current document only leaves them active for that particular
The template that spawns
your new, blank documents is normally the default template, but could
be -- and here, probably should be -- a custom template. With a custom
template, you can use it for special purposes (e.g., a letterhead),
leaving the default template to spawn your ordinary blank documents.
[For more on these important files, see the page
Suppose you have created
a custom template where you wish to have a footer
(e.g., Footer B) be in Arial Narrow
10-point font. You would edit the template itself and set the
Here's one way to do it
(another way is to directly modify the footer style itself, but the
following method makes it slightly easier to find and edit that style):
Step 1. Once the template is
open for editing (the filename at the top of the WP window should end
in .WPT, not .WPD), you can create a temporary Footer B (Insert,
Header/Footer, FooterB, Create) if it doesn't already exist.
Step 2. With the cursor inside
Footer B, double-click the [Open Style: FooterB] code
in Reveal Codes. This opens the Styles Editor for the Footer B style in
Step 3. In the Contents pane
of the Styles Editor, place the cursor after any other codes, then from
the property bar in the Styles Editor choose Arial Narrow font, then 10
point; then click OK to dismiss the Editor.
Step 4. Click outside the
Footer to return to the main document area. (If you didn't actually
create a footer -- i.e., you inserted no text or codes in the footer
itself -- no footer should appear on screen. That's okay: the Footer
B style has been modified, which is what we are trying to do.
It will be "upstream" from the footer text later, when you create a
document from the template, and pass on its new formatting to that
Step 5. Save your template.
When you create new documents based on that template, and then create a
new Footer B, it should automatically format all text in Arial
You could, of course, do
all this in the default template, but that is only
recommended if you are certain that you always want
Arial Narrow 10-point in Footer B. You might not remember how to change
it back if you need to, or you might find yourself needing to
constantly change the font. A custom template is easier to copy (clone)
Tip: To reset
the header, footer,
or watermark style in the template where it was
modified back to its factory default state: Edit the template and click
Format, Styles. Choose the item that you wish to reset to its factory
default. Click the Options button, then click Reset.
Example of using a footer to "fix" the vertical distance between body text and the bottom edge of the page
Assumptions: You want a
1.0" vertical area between the bottom of all body text (including any footnotes) and the bottom
edge of the page, and you want page numbers to appear 0.5" up from the
bottom edge of the page. (For more tips on page numbering see the resource links in the left sidebar above.) [Screen shot of example]
Here's how to do it.
Step 1. At the
top of the document, set the bottom page margin to 0.5" with Format,
Margins. This vertical position is where the page numbers will appear.
Step 2. Click on Format, Page, Numbering and set
the Position to "No Page Numbering". This turns off the display of
standard (default) page numbering, which normally appears at the bottom
page margin. [If it does not turn it off you might need to search in
the document for a [Pg Num Pos] code, which is what sets the visible
page number position, and delete it.]
Step 3. Create a Footer (either A or B; see "flavors" above) with Insert, Header/Footer (see "How to start them" above).
With the cursor inside the footer, use the Header/Footer property bar
button labeled "Header/Footer Distance" to set the distance between the
body text (which includes any footnotes) and the footer's text and/or
format codes. Set it to 0.5".
Step 4. While
still inside the footer, insert page numbering with the "Page
Numbering" button on the Header/Footer property bar. This inserts a [Pg
Num Disp] code, which you can then center in the footer (e.g., select
the code in Reveal Codes and use either the Justification button on the
Selected Text property bar that appears, or use Format>
Justification on the main menu). You can also add characters in the
footer such as hyphens to bracket the page number.
¤ Note that this
step is optional, unless there is nothing else in the footer, because
headers/footers require something in them when you create them. If you
have any other content in the footer (even just a space character) you
could just use normal page numbering at the bottom of the page (Format,
Page, Numbering, Position) by positioning the cursor in the body text
area, such as the top of the document. (But see information above about using only one of the numbering methods, not both (unless you actually want duplicate numbers on each page!).
Step 5. Click outside the footer to return to the main document.
¤ An advantage of using numbering inside
a footer is that you can add text, formatting, and other material such
as a logo in the footer, and also position the page number in a custom
location in the footer, not just at the bottom.]
☼ Assuming you want
to prevent the text-to-footer distance from being changed by
deliberately or accidentally click-dragging the footer's top guideline,
you can disable the ability to drag guidelines with View, Guidelines.
This would help "fix" the distance from the bottom of the body text
(and footnotes, if any) to the bottom edge of the page. It also
prevents page margins from being dragged with the mouse.
☼ You can, of course, use a similar method with headers to adjust the vertical distance to body text.
Setting up page numbering (e.g., "Page x" or "Page
x of y") inside
a header or footer
Step 1. First, turn normal page numbering off if it is on (see above). Then:
Step 2. Place the cursor inside the header or footer (click in it or use Insert, Header/Footer, Edit).
You can position
the location for the page numbers with hard returns, tabs,
justification, line centering, flush right, typesetting codes, etc.
[You can also create a text box (with or
without a border) inside the header or footer to hold the page
numbering (see next step). This is an easy way to "box" the numbers
and/or drag them to a desired position.]
Step 3. While the cursor is in the header/footer, insert the Page
Number at the desired location with either the Page Numbering button on
the Header/Footer Property bar (choose Page Number), or with Format,
Page, Insert Page Number.
Step 4. For "Page x of y" numbering: Continue by typing the word " of " in the header or footer; then use the button again and choose Total Pages.
(default) page numbering (i.e., applied outside headers or footers with
Format, Page, Numbering) has a "Page x of y" formatting choice, at
least in modern versions of WordPerfect. But using this format inside a
header or footer requires the steps above.
¤ Each button
choice on the property bar inserts a code (visible in Reveal Codes
[View, Reveal Codes]) which does the work of displaying the numbers.
¤ The "total
pages" number is automatically updated when you add or delete pages in
the document (sometimes you have to scroll up or down a bit to refresh
the pages and their numbers).
¤ The "page" part of the numbers can be reset. See next paragraph.
To reset page numbers to another value midway through a document when page numbering is used inside
a header or footer
Assuming you have already inserted a page numbering code in a header or footer with the Page Numbering button on the Header/Footer Property bar (see above) or with Format, Page, Insert Page Number:
Step 1. Exit from the header/footer
and go to the very top of the specific document page (before all other
codes) where you wish to reset the page numbering sequence.
Step 2. Use Format, Page, Numbering, Set Value to specify a new page
number value and insert a [Pg Num Set] code. The new value will be
picked up by the [Pg Num Disp] code in the "downstream" header/footer.
for a similar method using Roman numeral page numbers for initial
material ("front matter") or elsewhere in a document, and Arabic
numbers for the rest of the document.]
If you want to skip header or footer numbering in a section of the document and then resume numbering in the same header/footer location on pages in a later section, you can simply create a new header or footer (of the same type, A or B) at the point where numbers should be absent. As noted above,
a new header or footer of the same type will replace (i.e., discontinue
and supersede) the previous one at that point in the document. [Note
that since the new header or footer must contain something,
you can simply add a space character in it when creating it.] Then
create another new header or footer where numbering should resume and
add numbering as explained above in this footnote (you can start the
new numbering with a different value, if desired). Repeat as needed in
the document, using un-numbered headers or footers as "spacers" between
the numbered pages.
Headers and footers
can be used simultaneously to create separate numbering schemes on the
same pages -- something the default numbering feature cannot do.
From a tip by Charles Rossiter on WordPerfect Universe (here):
[Problem:] "I need to have page numbers on the top and bottom and my
pages (different numbers). I need the top to start with 1 through 660;
and the bottom to start with 194 through the end."
[Solution:] " Use Secondary Page numbers in the header and Primary Page numbers in the footer.
1. At the very top of the document, do Format, Page, Numbering. Set the
Primary Page number to be 194. Set its Position to be "No Page
2. Create your header. Click the [#1] button [on the Property bar] and choose Secondary Page Number.
3. Create your footer. Click the [#1] button and choose Primary Page Number."
[...continued from Footnote 1 above:]
A user on WordPerfect Universe (here) requested a
method to display a header on page 1 of a document and automatically
discontinue it on page 2 (if there is a page 2). He also wanted to make
the format codes that produce the one-page [Delay] immune to being
"pushed" downward in the document's text if material is added above the code.
Here's my reply, which includes hiding both the [Header] and the [Delay] code.
"1. Open a multi-page document (i.e., at least 2 pages). Open Reveal Codes (View, Reveal Codes).
2. If it does not already exist, create the header at the top of page 1
with Insert, Header/Footer. Choose the Header type (A or B) and then
click Create. Add your required text, graphic, etc. Click in the main
document area to exit from the header.
3. At the top of page 1 just after the new [Header] code, use Format,
Page, Delay Codes. Set number of pages to "1" and click OK. This opens
the "Define Delay Codes" editing window. Click the Header/Footer button.
In the Headers/Footers dialog that appears, choose the Header type you
used in step #2, and click Discontinue. A new code appears in Reveal
Codes (e.g., [Header A End]). Click Close to exit from the "Define Delay
Codes" editing window and return to the document. You should see a new
[Delay] code there, next to the new [Header] code.
4. In Reveal Codes, select just the [Header][Delay] codes (Shift+arrow works well) and cut them to the clipboard with Ctrl+X.
5. Double-click on the initial [OpenStyle: DocumentStyle] code to edit
it. Paste the codes there with Ctrl+V. Click OK to close the editor and
return to the document.
The new header should appear on page 1 and not appear on page 2 and following pages (unless, of course, you create a new header of the same type further in the document).
This method probably is best done in a custom template
so it will be available in all documents that are spawned by that
template. If you do it in the current document, do not use the option in
the DocumentStyle editor, "Use as default": You probably do not want
the new customizations above to be used in the default template that
spawns ALL new documents!
• Be aware that if you need to change the header's text in
the future you will need to open the DocumentStyle code and
select/cut/paste the [Header] code into the document [better: open a new
blank document] to edit it there, then select/cut/paste the changed
[Header] code back into the DocumentStyle where it came from. If you try
to edit the [Header] code while inside a DocumentStyle code, it
will likely cause the program to lock up and require you to use Windows
Task Manager (Ctrl+Alt+Del). (Headers and delays are a form of style,
and WordPerfect can't edit a style within another style.)
• Since a [Delay] code is made up of two codes (for more see here)
-- a [Delay] code that tells WordPerfect what to do, and (on the specific delayed page) a [Delay Codes] code
that tells it where to start doing it -- deleting the second one in the
document's text area will prevent the execution of the [Delay] code
instructions. (Using the method above, the first code will still be
inside the initial DocumentStyle code since it is still "hidden".)
A quick and easy fix for this small problem is to double-click on the
[Open Style: DocumentStyle] code, select and cut the [Delay] code with
Ctrl+X, and then immediately paste it back in place with Ctrl+V. This
should "refresh" the [Delay] code's instructions, restoring the [Delay
Codes] code on page 2.
Then click OK in the styles editor to exit back to the document."